Heart Disease and Copper
..."The copper deficiency theory is offered as the simplest and most general explanation of the etiology (study of causes) and pathophysiology (study of changes) of ischemic (decrease in blood supply) heart disease. Some links between this theory and other explanations that have been proposed have been provided here and elsewhere. Copper deficiency has produced more characteristics of ischemic heart disease in animals than has any other nutritional insult. This production supports the belief that low copper concentrations and low activities of enzymes dependent on copper in people with cardiovascular disease are signs of poor copper nutriture. If copper deficiency is the leading nutritional deficiency, world wide, of agricultural animals, can people be far behind?"
Yet again the nutritional causes of disease are compellingly shown but continue to fall on deaf ears. Supplementing animal feed is common practice yet the so called medical experts (paid for cronies of the pharmaceutical and medical Mafia) tell us to get all our vitamins and minerals form all the depleted processed foods! Then they tell us to reduce fat intake, meanwhile, being oblivious to the fact that most fats in processed foods are trans fats. All the time ignoring the good heart healthy natural essential fats that are almost never found in processed foods
..."The lipid hypothesis probably is the most widely accepted and most intensively studied hypothesis on the origin of ischemic heart disease...
...Most important, perhaps, are the lack of relationship of fat intakes to risk when data are collected in single nations(, freedom from heart disease with high plasma cholesterol and heart disease with low cholesterol, and lack of association between dietary fat intake and serum cholesterol...
...Epidemiology (study of disease causes in different populations) has not revealed that women eat less, or better fat, than men. Nor is there an experiment showing that women (or female animals) tolerate fat better than men (or male animals). Differences in fat consumption cannot explain why men with ischemic heart disease tend to die suddenly and women tend to die with thrombosis(blood clotting)...
,,,a systematic review of 27 trials stating the intention to reduce or modify fat intake revealed that cardiovascular mortality could be reduced by these measures. Longer trials provided stronger evidence of protection, but there was little effect on total mortality. It seems that this dietary change can change the words (not the date) on the death certificate"....
The full paper including copious references can be accessed below
Leslie M. Klevay
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND, USA
Copper frequently is low in the Western diet so closely associated with heart disease risk. Some of these diets are in the intake range used in successful depletion experiments of men and women and are low in comparison to suggested, desirable intakes.
Assessment of nutritional status for copper is difficult. More than a dozen research articles reveal low organ copper and low activities of enzymes dependent on copper in people with cardiovascular disease. The nearly 80 identified anatomical, chemical and physiological similarities between animals deficient in copper and people with ischemic heart disease support the concept that these low concentrations of copper and low enzyme activities are indicative of poor copper status. Some links between the copper deficiency theory on the etiology and pathophysiology of ischemic heart and other general explanations for this illness have been found.
The nutritional essentiality of copper was established for animals in 1928 when growth and hemoglobin improved after rats fed a cow's milk diet were supplemented with copper; nutritional scientists studying copper became preoccupied with hematology for more than half a century(1). Now there is more research on cardiovascular effects of copper deficiency than on hematology(1).
Although a link between copper and the cardiovascular system began to be made in 1939 by Bennetts and Hall(2), this shift in emphasis occurred gradually from the early 1970's(1,3).
Emphasis in this review will be restricted to copper deficiency and cardiovascular disease.
A must read Canadian site on heart health is at: http://www.health-heart.org/
posted by Chris Gupta on Tuesday October 21 2003
updated on Saturday September 24 2005
URL of this article:
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