Share The Wealth by Chris Gupta
January 13, 2004

Cod Liver Oil - Number One Superfood

This article from the Weston Price foundation is an absolute must read like many on the site. If you do one thing to improve your health than this is it....

...."Eating fish will not provide the levels of nutrients that are found in cod liver oil. Even in heavy fish-eating populations, the addition of cod liver oil improves health."...

Those concerned about
"Farm-Raised Salmon-PCB Levels Higher" please note:

..."One concern about taking cod liver oil is the presence of contaminantsheavy metals (such as mercury, cadmium and lead), PCBs and so forth. Fortunately, consumers need not worry when it comes to cod liver oil. All cod liver oils in the US must be tested according to protocols of the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and approved free of detectable levels of 32 contaminants before they can be imported into this country. Furthermore, mercury is water soluble. It may be present in the flesh of fish, but it is not present in the oil."...
Here are just a few miraculous applications:


A final plum from this most fruitful book regards secondary dentine. Secondary dentine, a less well-organized form of tubular dentine, is produced throughout life as a patching material where cavities have begun, where the overlying enamel has been worn away, and within the pulp chamber as part of the aging process. Sometimes when cavities occur, production of secondary dentine can "heal" the decayed spot or rebuild portions of the tooth that have worn away. If vitamin D is adequate, secondary dentine will be well calcified. If vitamin D is lacking, dentine will be of poor quality or not present at all.

There is some evidence that the mineralization of dentine may depend on calcium derived from saliva rather than blood; in other words, it is deposited from the exterior rather than the interior of the tooth. The book describes studies by Dr. C. L. Pattison who, working with Mrs. Mellanby, determined that the calcium content of saliva doubled or even tripled when the diet contained adequate vitamin D from cod liver oil...


Cod liver oil mixed with zinc oxide is better for the skin than any of the prescription medications, and safer."...

Chris Gupta


Cod Liver Oil - Number One Superfood

By Krispin Sullivan, CN

Doctor Price was right, as usual. Cod liver oil is very good for you, more than you ever knew. Research studies ranging from 1918-2001 give cod liver oil an A+ rating. This marvelous golden oil contains large amounts of elongated omega-3 fatty acids, preformed vitamin A and the sunlight vitamin D, essential nutrients that are hard to obtain in sufficient amounts in the modern diet. Samples may also naturally contain small amounts of the important bone- and blood-maintainer vitamin K.

There is hardly a disease in the books that does not respond well to treatment that includes cod liver oil, and not just infectious diseases but also chronic modern diseases like heart disease and cancer. Cod liver oil provides vitamin D that helps build strong bones in children and helps prevent osteoporosis in adults. The fatty acids in cod liver oil are also very important for the development of the brain and nervous system. "If you want to prevent learning disabilities in your children," said David Horrobin, distinguished medical and biochemical researcher, "feed them cod liver oil."

Cod liver oil contains more vitamin A and more vitamin D per unit weight than any other common food. One hundred grams of regular cod liver oil provides 100,000 IU of vitamin A, almost three times more than beef liver, the next richest source; and 10,000 IU vitamin D, almost four times more than lard, the next richest source. Of course, cod liver oil is only consumed in small amounts, but even a tablespoon (about 15 grams) provides well over the recommended daily allowance for both nutrients.

In addition, cod liveroil contains 7 percent each of the elongated omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. EPA is the precursor of important prostaglandins, localized tissue hormones that help the body deal with inflammation; and DHA is extremely important for the development and function of the brain and nervous system. So it's no surprise that in numerous studies cod liver oil has proven to be a powerhouse in fighting disease.


Cod liver oil greatly improves heart function to prevent heart disease and to treat it even in advanced stages, after a heart attack and after heart surgery. Cod liver oil alters the linings of the arteries in such a way as to improve healing after damage. This is attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids but vitamin A, D and K all have important roles to play in facilitating mineral absorption, improving muscle function and supporting elasticity of the blood vessels. The inflammation-reducing prostaglandins made from EPA help mediate the inflammatory response in the arteries. In other studies the heart-protective effect was associated with changes in the muscle response to serotonin, increasing the heart's ability to "relax."1-15 In a study with rats, treatment with cod liver oil actually caused artery-blocking atheromas to become smaller and blood vessel diameter to enlarge.55 Weston Price noted that heart attack deaths increased during periods when the vitamin A content of the diet was low. Cod liver oil can provide vitamin A on a continuous basis throughout the year.

Many of the conditions addressed by cod liver oil are considered related under the title Syndrome X. These include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, adult onset diabetes and stroke. Evidence is accumulating that these diseases of civilization are the result of high levels of omega-6 fatty acids and low levels of omega-3 fatty acids along with deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins. We may be paying a very high price for our rejection of parental wisdom to take our cod liver oil.

In numerous studies, the elongated omega-3 fats found in cod liver oil have been shown to improve brain function, memory, stress response, immune response, allergies, asthma, learning and behavioral disorders, including bipolar syndrome and manic-depression.

Cod liver oil is most famous for contributing to bone health, preventing and reversing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.16, 17 Before the discovery of cod liver oil as a source of vitamin D, many children suffered greatly with deformed bones. Osteoporosis responds to vitamin D and to cod liver oil. Sufficient elongated omega-3 oils found in cod liver oil are one of the keys to keeping and rebuilding bone.18, 19 In women, higher levels of vitamin D from cod liver oil improve bone mineral density.20

Two of the symptoms of low levels of vitamin D are bone pain and muscle pain. This may manifest as pain in the legs, muscle weakness and difficulty climbing stairs. Numerous studies have shown improvement in muscle pain, muscle strength and bone pain scores with cod liver oil.40, 41

Cod liver oil is effective in treating arthritis as well. Researchers funded by Great Britain's Arthritis Research Campaign found that the elongated omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil reduce both pain and damage in inflamed joints.56

Pregnant women using cod liver oil have infants with a lower risk for juvenile type 1 diabetes.21 This effect was found only in mothers taking cod liver oil, not in mothers taking multivitamin supplements. Cod liver oil taken by nursing mothers improves the fatty acid profile in breast milk to promote optimal brain development and also increases levels of vitamin A to prevent infections. Interestingly, cod liver oil does not provide increased vitamin D in breast milk.23,24

Cod liver oil given to infants after birth and during the first year had no protective effect against type 1 diabetes but it nevertheless is an important source of nutrients for optimal infant health.22 In more than forty trials, vitamin A has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality of children.25 Cod liver oil was the supplement of choice in many of these trials. Books on feeding infants published in the 1930s and 1940s routinely recommended cod liver oil, starting with 1 teaspoon at the age of three weeks. It was Dr. Spock who threw this wisdom out the window by recommending vaccinations instead of the powerful nutritional support of cod liver oil. Few modern books on infant care mention the importance of the fat-soluble nutrients in this wonderful superfood.

As for treating diabetes in adults, cod liver oil has been used in a number of trials with both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In both conditions cod liver oil improved glucose response and other markers of the disease.26-31 Vitamin A in cod liver oil helps promote healing and protects the retina, both problem areas in the diabetic patient.

Cod liver oil has lowered blood pressure induced by stress-elevated levels of cortisol.32-35 Cod liver oil given to rats reduced intraocular pressure suggesting a use in prevention and treatment of glaucoma.36 Vitamin D in cod liver oil promotes absorption of calcium and magnesium, thereby lowering blood pressure.

Colitis responds more effectively to the type of omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil than to medication.37-38 Cod liver oil should be the first protocol for this condition as well as irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease.

Topically applied, cod liver oil contributes to faster wound healing and improvement in skin quality.39 An excellent treatment for diaper rash and other skin conditions is cod liver oil mixed with zinc oxide. And cod liver oil taken orally helps maintain soft skin and minimize wrinkles.

And what about cancer? All the nutrients in cod liver oil help prevent cancer. Vitamin A has been part of every successful alternative cancer therapy so far. In a study in China, use of cod liver oil was found to be protective against childhood leukemia.57 In a study of Norwegian men and women, consumption of cod liver oil was found to protect against lung cancer.58


Eating fish will not provide the levels of nutrients that are found in cod liver oil. Even in heavy fish-eating populations, the addition of cod liver oil improves health.42-43 And taking fish oils is not the same as taking cod liver liver oil. One tablespoon of regular cod liver oil and one-half tablespoon of high-vitamin cod liver oil provide the amount of elongated omega-3 fatty acids found in twelve 1,000 mg fish oil capsules.

As for vitamin D, body oils of fish can be good sources as long as you are willing to eat a lot of them. One-half pound of fatty herring or sardines gives a dose of vitamin D equal to that of about one tablespoon of cod liver oil. But salmon oil has one-fifth the potency of cod liver oil.

One concern about taking cod liver oil is the presence of contaminants—heavy metals (such as mercury, cadmium and lead), PCBs and so forth. Fortunately, consumers need not worry when it comes to cod liver oil. All cod liver oils in the US must be tested according to protocols of the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and approved free of detectable levels of 32 contaminants before they can be imported into this country. Furthermore, mercury is water soluble. It may be present in the flesh of fish, but it is not present in the oil.

Another concern is rancidity. Cod liver oil can become rancid if improperly handled. In a 1988 study, peroxide values (indicating rancidity) ranged from a low of 2 to a high of 44.7.44 Nevertheless, properly handled cod liver oil is relatively stable. It contains 21 percent saturated fatty acids and 57 percent monounsaturated fatty acids, which provide stability. The fishy smell of cod liver oil is due to the presence of small amounts of fish protein and is not a sign of rancidity. To ensure that your cod liver oil is fresh, avoid buying the large economy size or the end-of-season sale item. Buy cod liver oil in small dark bottles and keep them in a cool dark place. Cod liver oil need not be refrigerated after opening if it is used up quickly—within two months.

Virtually all cod liver oil imported into the US comes from Norway, and while all of it is safe, there are different grades, depending on vitamin levels. The lighter oil from the "top of the barrel" has a lower molecular weight, goes rancid more quickly and has lower levels of vitamins, while the heavier oil, which sinks, is richer in vitamins. The heavier oil is what Dr. Price referred to as high-vitamin cod liver oil. It contains double the amounts of vitamin A and D as regular cod liver oil. Virtually all cod liver oil imported into the US is the lighter, "top of the barrel" variety. The Norwegians keep the best for themselves!
Whenever taking cod liver oil, remember the findings of Dr. Price. He noted that he did not get good results from cod liver oil unless he gave it concurrently with high-vitamin butter. Just why this is so is a matter of speculation, but we do know that the very unsaturated fatty acids found in cod liver oil cannot be effectively assimilated and stored in the tissues without the presence of adequate saturated fatty acids, the kind that would be provided by butter. This means that even regular butter would help support cod liver oil therapy; but Price found that the combination of cod liver oil with high-vitamin butter, from cows eating rapidly growing green grass, was nothing short of miraculous, reversing tooth decay and bringing patients back from the brink of death.

I do not find it hard to take Carlson's cod liver oil on a spoon, but for many, the big challenge is how to get this oily substance down. One technique is to add cod liver oil to a small amount of water or fresh juice, stir and then quickly send it down the hatch. If you can't bring yourself to take cod liver oil on a spoon or in water, then use the capsules. For babies and small children, use an eye dropper.


In researching this article, I had the great fortune to stumble upon a book published in the 1930s—it is truly exciting to come upon material found and lost and found again. Ultraviolet Light and Vitamin D in Nutrition, by Katharine Blunt and Ruth Cowan, published by the University of Chicago, contains fascinating material, including a chapter on the research of Mrs. May Mellanby published in 1918 in The Lancet II, page 767.

The book describes the work of scientists E. M. Honeywell, A. F. Hess and C. E. Bills (after which the Bills's Scale for determining antirachitic value for vitamin D is named) who studied all aspects of fish oil potency, production and seasonal distribution. Early in their research they discovered that oil extracted from cod when the fish were fat in the summer contained much lower amounts of vitamin D. Summer oil scored 100 on the Bills scale but winter oil scored above 1,000 and some oils scored 20,000. Their conclusion: "For a fish of a given size, antirachitic potency varies inversely with the amount of fat or oil in the liver." In other words, the less oil in the fish, the more concentrated it was.

In one fascinating study, they found that fish kept in darkened aquariums and fed on trimmed raw veal muscle had the same amount of vitamin D as free-swimming fish exposed to sunlight. So how the fish obtain vitamin D remains a mystery. Perhaps they are able to extract it from microscopic plankton and algae.
It is important to note that the amount of vitamin A in cod liver oil does not have any consistent relation with the amount of vitamin D. In numerous samples, oils rich in vitamin A were poor in vitamin D, and oils rich in vitamin D were poor in vitamin A.
According to the book, in 1922 the US imported about 1.8 million gallons of cod oil and cod liver oil. By 1927 this amount grew to almost 5 million gallons based on data from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the United States Department of Commerce. Cod oil is rancid oil used in the tanning industry, not for human consumption. The figures don't distinguish the difference, but most of the increase was in the edible cod liver oil due to research showing its benefit in preventing rickets. According to the Commerce Yearbook of 1928, "Medicinal oil production has increased greatly, and the advance in its price has lessened the supply of common cod oil for tanning."

In 2000, America imported only about one tenth that amount (less than half a million gallons), indicating a huge decline in use.

In 1930, when the book was compiled, the technology was just being developed to determine vitamin D potency. The accepted value as of August 31, 1929 was " one rat unit of vitamin D," defined as "that amount of vitamin D which, when uniformly distributed into the standard vitamin D deficient diet-ration, will produce a narrow and continuous line of calcium deposits on the metaphyses of the distal end of the radii and ulnae of standard rachitic rats." "Potent cod liver oil" is defined as that containing one of these rat units per 0.75 mg. The International Units started out as rat units!

Testing of 18 oils in use at that time showed great variations in potency. Luckily today we have methods of standardization and much better methods of transportation and storage to improve the amount of vitamin D and freshness of our cod liver oil.


In 1929, researchers tested a variety of foods for vitamin D content and found the second most potent source of vitamin D was egg yolk. The book describes studies in which Hess both cured and prevented rickets in rats by giving them egg yolks. He also gave prophylactic treatment to 12 infants to forestall development of rickets in the winter months, which his experience had taught him to expect in the great majority of bottle-fed infants. He gave them one egg yolk added to their regular formula starting in December. None of the 12 developed rickets in March as expected and, unlike prior years, blood phosphates remained stable at summer values.

About this same time, Johns Hopkins University investigators cured seven African-American children of rickets, in most cases severe, by adding one or two eggs daily to their diet of milk and cereal.

Like the vitamin D in cod liver oil, the amount of vitamin D in egg yolks also varies. Researchers in Kansas looked at four groups of hens: one group got sunlight in the yard plus 30 minutes under a quartz mercury vapor lamp producing UV-B light; another got sunlight through glass plus 30 minutes under the lamp; the third group got sunlight alone; and the fourth group got sunlight under glass alone. Eggs from hens under glass produced rickets in rats. Those with considerable UV-B prevented rickets completely and those with less (no lamp) caused the development of slight rickets. Only the sunlight plus lamp completely prevented rickets, showing that the natural UV-B in Kansas did not provide sufficient light for optimal vitamin D. Giving cod liver oil to the chickens had the same effect as exposure to UV-B light. Cod liver oil as two percent of the ration increased levels of vitamin D in the egg yolks fivefold.
The surprising conclusion is that chickens should either be given sunlamp treatment or cod liver oil. Poultrymen and consumers alike need to recognize that the axiom "an egg is an egg" is a mistaken one. Rather, "an inadequate ration may yield impoverished eggs as well as animals." The authors suggest that eggs be graded by vitamin content. What a concept! Too bad no one listened. What would they think of our so-called "organic" eggs from hens raised in barns, never exposed to light and given "all-vegetarian" feed?


The most fascinating part of this little book is the chapter describing the experiments done in England by a Mrs. May Mellanby. Her husband, Dr. E. Mellanby, was the author of over 400 studies and the first to control rickets with diet. Cod liver oil had been used for centuries as a remedy but the specific application to rickets was first demonstrated by Dr. Mellanby. (Control of rickets using UV-B light was demonstrated almost simultaneously by investigators at Columbia and Johns Hopkins University in 1921.) In his research into rickets in dogs, he discovered the mineral-blocking effect of phytic acid in grains and legumes. Dr. Mellanby demonstrated that diets containing high levels of cereals, especially oatmeal, and lacking vitamin D, are the most effective producers of rickets. If vitamin D is inadequate there is poor tooth development, but Mrs. Mellanby then went on to prove that no matter how much cereal is fed, if vitamin D is adequate tooth formation is normal. Mrs. Mellanby believed that as cereals increase in the diet, vitamin D must also be increased to offset their anticalcifying effects—think of the implications of this research on today's baby-feeding habits, where infants are given cereals as their first food but denied egg yolks until they are one year old!

Mrs. Mellanby also determined that vitamin D must be present from conception in order for proper tooth formation to occur. If vitamin D is absent during the early gestational period, the enamel cannot form properly, and it cannot be repaired by giving vitamin D later.

In her initial studies Mrs. Mellanby used dogs as the source of data but she later examined more than one thousand "baby" teeth from children. She divided these teeth into four categories—normal, hypoplastic (slightly underdeveloped), moderately underdeveloped and grossly underdeveloped. Only 149, or about 14 percent, of the total 1,036 were sound. About one-quarter were slightly underdeveloped, but nearly two-thirds were moderately or grossly underdeveloped.

It is more difficult to examine teeth in place, but of 266 adult teeth examined by Mrs. Mellanby, not one was sound. The teeth were extracted only for purposes of straightening the teeth, which means that they were erupting in a jaw that was underdeveloped. Thus, children with narrow faces most likely have underdeveloped teeth. Tooth structure and later decay are directly related. Prevention of cavities must start in the womb.


A final plum from this most fruitful book regards secondary dentine. Secondary dentine, a less well-organized form of tubular dentine, is produced throughout life as a patching material where cavities have begun, where the overlying enamel has been worn away, and within the pulp chamber as part of the aging process. Sometimes when cavities occur, production of secondary dentine can "heal" the decayed spot or rebuild portions of the tooth that have worn away. If vitamin D is adequate, secondary dentine will be well calcified. If vitamin D is lacking, dentine will be of poor quality or not present at all.

There is some evidence that the mineralization of dentine may depend on calcium derived from saliva rather than blood; in other words, it is deposited from the exterior rather than the interior of the tooth. The book describes studies by Dr. C. L. Pattison who, working with Mrs. Mellanby, determined that the calcium content of saliva doubled or even tripled when the diet contained adequate vitamin D from cod liver oil.


Now that I have told you all this good news about cod liver oil, I need to comment on the research surrounding its possible toxicity. Over-elevated serum levels of vitamin D are a possibility if you combine summer or southern sun and cod liver oil. So if you are spending a lot of time out in the sun during the summer months, it's probably best to cut back on the dose. If you are unsure, you should test your blood levels of vitamin D.

Cod liver oil is no longer recommended in Great Britain and in the US pregnant women are advised to avoid most vitamin A and vitamin A-containing foods, including cod liver oil. Both countries have adopted this policy because of the recognized teratogenicity (may cause birth defects) of retinoic acid, a synthetic form of vitamin A. But low vitamin A also causes birth defects. In the developing countries, such as Brazil, Pakistan and India, vitamin A deficiency is widespread, afflicting millions. A 1992 survey of the US population determined that 50 percent of Americans consume 19 percent or less of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) or 400 IU.

The original study showing birth defects associated with intake of mostly synthetic vitamin A exceeding 5,000 IU daily was published November 23, 1995 in the New England Journal of Medicine.46 Other studies showing an association of birth defects with vitamin A concerned topical creams containing vitamin A derivatives such as Accutane, or extremely high doses of A used in animal studies.47-52

A later study, less well publicized, from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), found no association with birth defects in women who took up to 10,000 IU of vitamin A during pregnancy. Because few women took more than 10,000 IU, researchers could not determine whether higher doses were a problem. Later Mills and others continued their research and determined that after serum testing and determining safe serum levels, women taking 30,000 IU of preformed vitamin A from animal foods (not beta-carotene) daily had the same blood levels of A as healthy pregnant women in the first trimester who had healthy babies. The conclusion is that a dosage over 30,000 IU vitamin A daily may be teratogenic for a certain few, but anything up to that amount is safe.53-54

Thus if you are or may become pregnant, limit cod liver oil intake to not more than a total vitamin A value of 30,000 IU. If using my favorite brand, Carlson Labs cod liver oil, that would equal the amount of vitamin A found in 12 teaspoons or 4 tablespoons, more than anyone would ever take. If using high-vitamin cod liver oil, the limit would be 2 tablespoons. Two tablespoons of regular cod liver oil provide 15,000 IU vitamin A, 2600 IU vitamin D and 6 grams of mixed omega-3 fatty acids, safe for pregnancy and good for mom and baby.

There is one situation in which high levels of vitamin A are not recommended and that is the condition of certain types of liver disease in which there is altered vitamin A metabolism. This is frequently the case with alcoholism. Alcoholics should not take high doses (not more than 1-1.5 tablespoons of regular cod liver oil) and what they do take should be accompanied by zinc supplements. The enzymes needed for vitamin A metabolism in the liver are zinc dependent.

The most likely culprits for production of birth defects in humans are topical and oral vitamin A analogs, not cod liver oil. Researchers have criticized the original 1995 study, from which governmental policy has been derived, for overstating the negative effect. Only 1.4 percent took supplements exceeding 10,000 IU a day, not a large enough sample from which to draw conclusions. However, it is important to never combine cod liver oil or vitamin A from supplements with oral or topical medications for acne or other skin disorders treated with retinoic acid derivatives.

If you sunbathe regularly and have found that your vitamin D levels are within the normal range, do not use cod liver oil unless you are willing to test and retest to determine that your blood levels of vitamin D have not gone too high. We do not know enough to say whether or not sunbathing and cod liver oil work synergistically or antagonistically. If you decide to get lots of sun and also use cod liver oil, please send me your vitamin D tests for my continued research. Cod liver oil use is safe in most of the US and all of Canada in winter but it should not be combined with other sources of vitamin D without careful testing and monitoring.


Dr. Price was right. . . we all need to take cod liver oil (and eat plenty of good butter). For growing children, and for almost every disease condition, cod liver oil is the number one superfood, the supplement of choice.

For Vitamin D testing and monitoring information, send for the Sunlight and Vitamin D protocol from or send $38.50 to K. Sullivan, PO Box 961, Woodacre, CA 94973. You can wait until May 2002 for the publication of Naked at Noon—The Importance of Sunlight and Vitamin D, which will contain the sunlight and vitamin D protocols in greater detail. We are also working with DiagnosTechs laboratory to develop a saliva test for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin K. Since these are the factors regulating teeth and bone it will be an easy way to diagnose and to monitor treatment. Stay tuned.

Note: Carlson Lab's cod liver oil, with a pleasant lemon taste, is available from High-vitamin cod liver oil is available from Radiant Life (888) 593-8333,


  1. Aviram M, Brox J, Nordoy A. Acute effects of dietary cod liver oil and cream on plasma lipoproteins. Ann.Nutr Metab 1986;30:143-8.
  2. Brox JH, Killie JE, Gunnes S, Nordoy A. The effect of cod liver oil and corn oil on platelets and vessel wall in man. Thromb.Haemost. 1981;46:604-11.
  3. Brox JH, Killie JE, Osterud B, Holme S, Nordoy A. Effects of cod liver oil on platelets and coagulation in familial hypercholesterolemia (type IIa). Acta Med.Scand. 1983;213:137-44.
  4. Vognild E, Elvevoll EO, Brox J et al. Effects of dietary marine oils and olive oil on fatty acid composition, platelet membrane fluidity, platelet responses, and serum lipids in healthy humans. Lipids 1998;33:427-36.
  5. Aviram M, Brox J, Nordoy A. Effects of postprandial plasma and chylomicrons on endothelial cells. Differences between dietary cream and cod liver oil. Acta Med.Scand. 1986;219:341-8.
  6. Brox J, Olaussen K, Osterud B et al. A long-term seal- and cod liver oil supplementation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids 2001;36:7-13.
  7. Skuladottir GV, Gudmundsdottir E, Olafsdottir E et al. Influence of dietary cod liver oil on fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in human male subjects after myocardial infarction. J Intern.Med. 1990;228:563-8.
  8. Schmidt EB, Pedersen JO, Ekelund S, Grunnet N, Jersild C, Dyerberg J. Cod liver oil inhibits neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis in healthy males. Atherosclerosis 1989;77:53-7.
  9. Shimokawa H, Vanhoutte PM. Dietary cod liver oil improves endothelium-dependent responses in hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic porcine coronary arteries. Circulation 1988;78:1421-30.
  10. Shimokawa H, Lam JY, Chesebro JH, Bowie EJ, Vanhoutte PM. Effects of dietary supplementation with cod liver oil on endothelium-dependent responses in porcine coronary arteries. Circulation 1987;76:898-905.
  11. Burchard HU, Tischendorf FW. The effects of the intake of cod liver oil on the blood lipid level, the lipoprotein profile and bleeding time. Z.Ernahrungswiss. 1989;28:84-91.
  12. Gudbjarnason S. Dynamics of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in phospholipids of heart muscle. J Intern.Med.Suppl 1989;225:117-28.
  13. Gudbjarnason S, Benediktsdottir VE, Skuladottir G. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary heart disease. Bibl.Nutr Dieta 1989;1-12.
  14. Gudbjarnason S, Oskarsdottir G. Modification of fatty acid composition of rat heart lipids by feeding cod liver oil. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1977;487:10-5.
  15. Benediktsdottir VE, Gudbjarnason S. Modification of the fatty acid composition of rat heart sarcolemma with dietary cod liver oil, corn oil or butter. J Mol.Cell Cardiol. 1988;20:141-7.
  16. Akpede GO, Omotara BA, Ambe JP. Rickets and deprivation: a Nigerian study. J R.Soc.Health 1999;119:216-22.
  17. Wilton P. Cod liver oil, vitamin D and the fight against rickets. CMAJ. 1995;152:1516-7.
  18. Requirand P, Gibert P, Tramini P, Cristol JP, Descomps B. Serum fatty acid imbalance in bone loss: example with periodontal disease. Clin Nutr 2000;19:271-6.
  19. Watkins BA, Lippman HE, Le Bouteiller L, Li Y, Seifert MF. Bioactive fatty acids: role in bone biology and bone cell function. Prog.Lipid Res. 2001;40:125-48.
  20. Sigurdsson G, Franzson L, Steingrimsdottir L, Sigvaldason H. The association between parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and bone mineral density in 70-year-old Icelandic women. Osteoporos.Int. 2000;11:1031-5.
  21. Stene LC, Ulriksen J, Magnus P, Joner G. Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of Type I diabetes in the offspring. Diabetologia 2000;43:1093-8.
  22. Seip M. [Infant nutrition in Norway in the light of recent research]. Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen. 1991;111:2122-5.
  23. Tsutsumi K, Obata Y, Takayama K, Loftsson T, Nagai T. Effect of cod liver oil extract on the buccal permeation of ergotamine tartrate. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 1998;24:757-62.
  24. Olafsdottir AS, Wagner KH, Thorsdottir I, Elmadfa I. Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Maternal Diet, Influence of Cod liver oil Supplementation and Impact of the Maternal Diet on Human Milk Composition. Ann.Nutr Metab 2001;45:265-72.
  25. Semba RD. Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. J Nutr 1999;129:783-91.
  26. Lombardo YB, Chicco A, D'Alessandro ME, Martinelli M, Soria A, Gutman R. Dietary fish oil normalize dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance with unchanged insulin levels in rats fed a high sucrose diet. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1996;1299:175-82.
  27. Chicco A, D'Alessandro ME, Karabatas L, Gutman R, Lombardo YB. Effect of moderate levels of dietary fish oil on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and pancreas insulin content in normal rats. Ann.Nutr Metab 1996;40:61-70.
  28. Shimizu H, Ohtani K, Tanaka Y, Sato N, Mori M, Shimomura Y. Long-term effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl (EPA-E) on albuminuria of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Res.Clin Pract. 1995;28:35-40.
  29. Jensen T, Stender S, Goldstein K, Holmer G, Deckert T. Partial normalization by dietary cod liver oil of increased microvascular albumin leakage in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes and albuminuria. N.Engl.J Med. 1989;321:1572-7.
  30. Schimke E, Hildebrandt R, Beitz J et al. Influence of a cod liver oil diet in diabetics type I on fatty acid patterns and platelet aggregation. Biomed.Biochim.Acta 1984;43:S351-S353.
  31. Beitz J, Schimke E, Liebaug U et al. Influence of a cod liver oil diet in healthy and insulin-dependent diabetic volunteers on fatty acid pattern, inhibition of prostacyclin formation by low density lipoprotein (LDL) and platelet thromboxane. Klin.Wochenschr. 1986;64:793-9.
  32. Codde JP, McGowan HM, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ. Changes in prostanoid synthesis in response to diet and hypertension in one-kidney, one clip rats. Hypertension 1985;7:886-92.
  33. Codde JP, Beilin LJ. Dietary fish oil prevents dexamethasone induced hypertension in the rat. Clin Sci.(Lond) 1985;69:691-9.
  34. Moritz V, Singer P, Forster D, Berger I, Massow S. Changes of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats dependent on the quantity and quality of fat intake. Biomed.Biochim.Acta 1985;44:1491-505.
  35. Singer P, Berger I, Gerhard U, Wirth M, Moritz V, Forster D. Changes of N-6 and N-3 fatty acids in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive rats after diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic or eicosapentaenoic acids. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1987;28:183-93.
  36. Mancino M, Ohia E, Kulkarni P. A comparative study between cod liver oil and liquid lard intake on intraocular pressure on rabbits. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1992;45:239-43.
  37. Vilaseca J, Salas A, Guarner F, Rodriguez R, Martinez M, Malagelada JR. Dietary fish oil reduces progression of chronic inflammatory lesions in a rat model of granulomatous colitis. Gut 1990;31:539-44.
  38. Guarner F, Vilaseca J, Malagelada JR. Dietary manipulation in experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Agents Actions 1992;Spec No:C10-C14.
  39. Terkelsen LH, Eskild-Jensen A, Kjeldsen H, Barker JH, Hjortdal VE. Topical application of cod liver oil ointment accelerates wound healing: an experimental study in wounds in the ears of hairless mice. Scand.J Plast.Reconstr.Surg.Hand Surg. 2000;34:15-20.
  40. Eriksen W, Sandvik L, Bruusgaard D. Does dietary supplementation of cod liver oil mitigate musculoskeletal pain? Eur.J Clin Nutr 1996;50:689-93.
  41. Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency in a multicultural setting. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 2001;145:2060-2.
  42. Simonsen T, Nordoy A, Sjunneskog C, Lyngmo V. The effect of cod liver oil in two populations with low and high intake of dietary fish. Acta Med.Scand. 1988;223:491-8.
  43. Simonsen T, Nordoy A. Ischaemic heart disease, serum lipids and platelets in Norwegian populations with traditionally low or high fish consumption. J Intern.Med.Suppl 1989;225:83-9.
  44. Luley C, Klein B, Hanisch M, Prellwitz W. Fatty acid composition and degree of peroxidation in fish oil and cod liver oil preparations.Arzneimittel-forschung. 1988;38:1783-6.
  45. Bjerve KS. n-3 fatty acid deficiency in man. J Intern.Med.Suppl 1989;225:171-5.
  46. Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N.Engl.J Med. 1995;333:1369-73.
  47. Orfanos CE, Zouboulis CC, Almond-Roesler B, Geilen CC. Current use and future potential role of retinoids in dermatology. Drugs 1997;53:358-88.
  48. Die-Smulders CE, Sturkenboom MC, Veraart J, van Katwijk C, Sastrowijoto P, van der LE. Severe limb defects and craniofacial anomalies in a fetus conceived during acitretin therapy. Teratology 1995;52:215-9.
  49. Mills CM, Marks R. Adverse reactions to oral retinoids. An update. Drug Saf 1993;9:280-90.
  50. Heckel S, Favre R, Weber P, Dellenbach P. [Teratogenicity of retinoids. A case and review of the literature]. J Gynecol.Obstet.Biol.Reprod.(Paris) 1993;22:43-7.
  51. Nau H. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of topical retinoic acid. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6 Suppl 1:35-44.
  52. Pinnock CB, Alderman CP. The potential for teratogenicity of vitamin A and its congeners. Med.J Aust. 1992;157:804-9.
  53. Miller RK, Hendrickx AG, Mills JL, Hummler H, Wiegand UW. Periconceptional vitamin A use: how much is teratogenic? Reprod.Toxicol. 1998;12:75-88.
  54. Wiegand UW, Hartmann S, Hummler H. Safety of vitamin A: recent results. Int.J Vitam.Nutr Res. 1998;68:411-6.
  55. Knapp HR and others. The Effect of Cod liver oil on the Development of Atherosclerosis in an Animal Model. Proceedings of the AOCS, Ed WEM Lands, AOCS 1987, pp 35-40.
  57. Shu XO and others. A population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai. Cancer 1988 Aug 1;62(3):635-44.
  58. Veierod MG, Laake P, Thelle DS. Dietary fat intake and risk of lung cancer: a prospective study of 51,452 Norwegian men and women. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997 Dec;6(6):540-9.

Sidebar articles


Cod liver oil is not the only rich source of vitamins A and D. In 1926 Hess and Weinstock determined that puffer fish liver oil was 15 times more potent than cod liver oil in vitamin D, or what was then called antirachitic factor. On the rating scale with cod liver oil as 100, puffer liver oil posted 1500. (Haddock liver oil posted a lowly 10.)

The best cod liver oil replacement for Americans is the burbot or Lota lota, a fish found extensively in most of the Great Lakes. The burbot was not typically consumed as a food in the US, but burbot liver oil was found to be eight times as active as cod liver oil, scoring 800 on the antirachitic Bills scale.

Commonly called "lawyers" in the Great Lakes region, the burbot is a mottled olive-green fish weighing 1-3 pounds and measuring 15-22 inches. These elongated, cylindrical, freshwater codfish inhabit most waters of Alaska, Canada and northern United States as well as corresponding latitudes of Eurasia. Despite the burbot's homely form, its meat is palatable and nutritious and considered a delicacy in Scandinavia.

Early Great Lakes fishermen derided the burbot as trash fish. In the middle of the 20th century, the Great Lakes burbot populations declined under the onslaught of the sea lamprey. Today, however, burbot are returning to the lakes in increasing numbers. Burbot spawn under the midwinter ice, usually in one to four feet of water, though sometimes deeper. By midsummer, they move out to the cool depths of the lake, where they roam the open waters with lake trout, lake whitefish and other deepwater fish.

Many knowledgeable fishermen savor burbot. When boiled and buttered, the sweet flavor of burbot has earned it the title of "poor man's lobster." Though they continue to have an undeserved reputation as "trash fish," the commercial harvest of burbot from Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan increased nearly fivefold during the early 1980s to a total of nearly 100,000 pounds annually. Perhaps it's time to look into the burbot as a commercial source of high-vitamin oil. Of course it will be important to test the oil for the presence of heavy metals and pesticides. Development of a domestic source of high-vitamin fish liver oil provides additional incentive to clean up the Great Lakes!


If pregnant or pregnancy is possible, limit cod liver oil intake to not more than 30,000 IU A per day. Two tablespoons of regular cod liver oil, one tablespoon high-vitamin cod liver oil is a dose that is safe and adequate for pregnant women and, in fact, all adults. There is no indication that anyone needs a dose of cod liver oil exceeding two tablespoons except in certain special circumstances. More is not better.

Infants and growing children can tolerate higher-per-pound doses of vitamin D and cod liver oil. Recommended dosages are as follows: one teaspoon from birth to six months, two teaspoons from six months to three years, one tablespoon from 4-10 years and two tablespoons thereafter during winter months or when not sunning.

Never combine sources of vitamin A. Vitamin A and its derivatives are found in skin lotions and creams, oral medications and vitamin supplements. The 30,000 IU limit is from all sources.

If you sun regularly and spend winter months in the South, you need to find another way to get elongated fatty acids (such as organ meats). You really do not want too much vitamin D. High doses of cod liver oil are used to promote atherosclerosis in animal studies. Too much D is too much D.

When using a UV-B meter and sunning to raise vitamin D, you will need the Vitamin D and Sunlight protocol. Cod liver oil can be reduced or eliminated depending on your location and exposure times.

Cod liver oil mixed with zinc oxide is better for the skin than any of the prescription medications, and safer.

See also:  Bad News About Statin Drugs


posted by Chris Gupta on Tuesday January 13 2004
updated on Saturday September 24 2005

URL of this article:



Related Articles

Artificial Water Fluoridation: Off To A Poor Start / Fluoride Injures The Newborn
Please watch this short 5 minute video: Little Things Matter: The Impact of Toxins on the Developing Brain Toxins such as Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Aluminum and other known and unknown chemicals, that are often above the legal limits, are deliberately added to our water to manage the disposal of toxic industrial waste chemicals under the pretense of "safe and effective" for water fluoridation mantra.Knowing and acting on the above should... [read more]
December 30, 2014 - Chris Gupta

Drinking Water Fluoridation is Genotoxic & Teratogenic
This paper by Prof. Joe Cummins is a very important 5 minute delegation made to London Ontario Canada "Civic Works Committee" public participation meeting on January 25, 2012 on fluoride*. While a bit technical it is short and easy to grasp. A must read as it goes to the heart of the matter regarding the well established toxicity of fluoride which is well in all scientific circles even before water... [read more]
February 06, 2012 - Chris Gupta

Democracy At Work? - PPM On Fluoride
Here is a commentary on the recent (Jan, 25th, 2011) Public Participation Meeting (PPM) on Fluoride in the City of London, Ontario. The meeting started with a strong pro fluoride stance form the City engineer. His lack of knowledge on chemistry of the toxic wastes used to fluoridate water could embarrass even a high school student never mind his own profession. He blatantly violated his "duty to public welfare" as... [read more]
January 29, 2012 - Chris Gupta



Readers' Comments

One tablespoon a week, a day,
a month. ?

Posted by: virginia payne on February 2, 2004 05:31 PM


to get:
25,000 IU - A
10,000 IV - D
a day (each), how much cod liver oil would I take?

Would it be OK to put it into a health/protein drink OR is it better taken alone on an empty stomach?

Do you have any places you can recommend to purchase col-liver oil capsules?

THANKS so much for your time.

Posted by: carrie on June 18, 2004 11:46 PM


what is the difference between cod liver oil & fish oils with omega3-fatty acids. 180 mg EPA & 120 mg DHA?? is there a difference??
Which one is better for you. when I was a small child my mother gave me and my siblings a tablespoon every weekend and we never had a cold, and we never were sick.
so please let me know if cod oil or fish oil is better for you or are they the same product just named different.

thank you,

Patricia Pino

Posted by: Patricia Pinto on June 20, 2004 03:37 AM


is there a difference between cod liver oil and fish oils with omega-3 fatty acids??

as a child my mother gave us all a tablespoon of cod liver oil,weekly, happy to say, we were never ill, never, all 5 of us.

let me know which is better for you,

thanks ,


Posted by: Patricia Pino on June 20, 2004 03:41 AM


Other than Cod LIver Oil is there any thing like Squdion Oil. I am not sure of the spelling too. A friend of mine told about it and also said that it is healthier than this .

Please explain.

Posted by: John on July 31, 2004 09:47 AM


Why is there such a variation in the price of Cod Liver Oil Capsules - from 79p to £4.76?
Is it to do with concentration of oil or is it all a big scam?

Posted by: on August 20, 2004 10:23 AM


Probably a scam - just buy the Oil itself.

Posted by: Chris Gupta on August 20, 2004 04:00 PM


I had a colonoscopy this week.
I really dreaded the preparation
for it - anticipating cramps, weakness, nausea, etc. that goes
along with the cleansing process. To my surprise, I had NO PAIN AT ALL. Not even one gas cramp. I had been using cod liver oil for about four weeks prior to having this procedure. I give the cod liver oil all of the credit. I was already cleansed and I did not even know it.

Posted by: C G P on October 11, 2004 02:52 AM


What is the suitable grade of cod liver oil can be used in pharmaceutical topical preparations

Posted by: salam O A natour on October 13, 2004 09:23 AM


It is said that one must eat butter in order to make the fats within Cod Liver Oil available for absorbtion. Something to do with having Saturated fatty acids in the body before unsaturated fatty acids from the fish oil can be absorbed. Well my question is, can these saturated fatty acids be gotten from Coconut oil/butter instead of dairy butter?

I am a but lactose intolerant, or cow protein intolarant Im not sure, so I like to avoid dairy as much as possible. Coconuts, are just plants and Coconut oil also has other benefits. Thats why I ask.

Posted by: X.R. on December 25, 2004 07:08 PM


I suppose you could - but have you tried raw butter. The lactose in raw butter is better tolorated than the beta lactose which is formed form heating/pasturization.

Posted by: Chris Gupta on December 26, 2004 03:38 AM


This information is so enlightening! A few weeks ago, I discovered, again, the benefits of castor oil (Palma Christi), and now I know why my parents use to make us take cod liver oil.

Thank you, thank you!

Posted by: Sondra Owens on January 22, 2005 03:25 PM



Posted by: DOROTHY GAPPER on February 23, 2005 05:53 AM



Taking mixed with butter is the intent

Posted by: on February 25, 2005 04:35 AM


You say not to take cod liver oil with other vitamin D intake. For example take less cod liver oil in the summer.

What about Milk? most milk has added vitamin D. So how much cod liver oil should one take if about 2 servings of milk is being consumed daily?

Posted by: Debra on March 20, 2005 04:50 AM


I currently take 50mg of Tetracycline for my adult acne, is this a problem when mixed with the cod liver oil?

Posted by: Ann Marie on March 26, 2005 02:00 PM


I have type 2 Diabetics, I
have no gallbladder, I also
have small vains. would it
hurt to take cod liver oil
once a week. thanks

Posted by: Linda VanMeter on May 4, 2005 06:25 AM


Linda, see:

Posted by: Chris Gupta on May 6, 2005 01:48 AM


How is the popularity of cod liver oil affecting the cod species? Do you know if they are in danger of decline?

Posted by: Vickie on May 9, 2005 06:26 AM


ive just read the book -Arthritis and common sense #2 by Dale Alexander. it is on cod liver oil.. he recomends 1 Tablespoon of cod liver oil and 2 Tablespoons whole milk shaken to emolsofie (such as a baby jar). drink on an empty stomach and wait at least a 1/2 hour before eating.. i like the orange flavered oil and milk... im feeling so much better..

Posted by: on May 13, 2005 12:02 PM


i have the same question as the comment posted by Christine on 10-06-05: what is the difference between salmon oil and cod liver oil? i know salmon oil contains omega 3, DHA & EPA; and cod liver oil contains vitamins A&D.. but which one is better for reducing acne(and healthier skin and collagin), asthma, depression, PMS, & food allergies; and for improving quality of sleep, mental functions & memory; and for helping in weight loss by boosting metabolism and supressing appetite?

Posted by: filwa on July 12, 2005 06:04 PM


I see lots of questions, but few answers. When is someone going to answer these questions?

Posted by: Bryan on July 14, 2005 12:59 PM


I have psoriasis and I hear that cos liver oil with zinc oxide may help. I am willing to take it if there are no side effects. Also, suppose I take one teaspoon of the oil, how much zinc oxide shoild add? Where do I find the zinc oxide, in India?

Posted by: Anjan on July 23, 2005 12:31 AM


i stopped smoking on my own 4 years ago. and my doctor said i have a touch of emphysema.will cod liver oil help in any kind of way.please respond?

Posted by: atlean wilkerson on August 1, 2005 11:39 PM


i wish more people would respond to this site

Posted by: atlean wilkerson on August 2, 2005 04:19 PM


I took Norwegian cod liver oil capsules (2 Capsules per day) & got cured of my eye infection & irritation

Posted by: DR V.Chandrika on August 8, 2005 10:31 PM


Just a quick question. Has anyone noticed getting greasy skin while taking Cod Liver Oil capsules?I used to take it years ago and stopped out of pure laziness but have started taking it two weeks ago and never suffered from greasy skin until the last week.Just wondering if this is from the oil or something else? ! any ideas?

Posted by: Clare Mc on August 17, 2005 11:26 AM


i take 1 tablet of multivitamins every other day. It contains 3500IU of vitamin A and 400IU of vitamin D, which are 70%(VitaminA)/100%(of D) of the Daily Value.(Centrum A toZinc) Not to mention i love my bud light. I need to take cod liver oil to help my astema cuz i cant afford flovent and hear from people it helps the astema in the long term. and other purposes such as mustle wearing out. i have no insurance, no doctor to speak to and poor as all hell living in the good ole USofA. and i read that zinc should be taken as well if i am a alcoholic... Im not a extreme alcohy but i do drink atleast 6 beers of alcohol daily? Im not worried about the excessive A & D intake by daily consumption of both but if i do get sunlight say from chainsawing wood all day should i not take the multi vitamin for a day or two? and how much would be recommended to take winter time VS summer time for a drinker of the cod liver oil. I definitely drink No hard liquor, just beer and kool-aid hehe. or wine at dinner. Someone please reply to me asap since i am starting this cod liver oil today.... God all of this cod fish stuff is making me want to eat a cod fillet. mmmmm. I used to be a chef for 6 years so im always curious on these types of stuff.

Thank you in advance

Posted by: Chris Swaf on August 18, 2005 03:06 PM


I was diagnosed with fibromalygia and was given a hydro cortisone shots. Until now, I still feel pain and have inflammation in every part of my body. Will someone outhere let me know if cod liver oil or fish liver oil is something i should try to take. Or has anybody outhere who has the same syndrome us mine have taken cod liver oil and was help ease the pain?

Posted by: Roy on August 21, 2005 06:24 AM


I am 43 and have a bad memory and learning disability can this help??? I need something.Stan

Posted by: stan on September 27, 2005 12:50 PM


My younger brother was the only one in our family to not get ill last winter, and he says its because of the CLO (Cod Liver Oil) capsules he had been taking. He even looks alot more healthier (a nice glow), has more energy, and just seems far more happier than usual. I am now taking CLO & am looking forward to whatever benefits it may produce. Thank Cod...hehe

Posted by: G Grey on October 17, 2005 03:29 PM


My mother gave all of us Cod Liver Oil from a baby, and it has become a none family remedy for all of us. I now give it to my children and my daughter says, "Cod Liver Oil is Yummy to her Tummy!" Start giving it to them young and they will acquire the taste.

Posted by: S.Bevelle on October 29, 2005 12:32 AM


Does somebody know if eating a canned cod liver, in its own oil, is good?
There is canned cod liver that you can find in any Russian store and I find it extremely delicious and the ultimate temptation, only I don't know if the liver itself is as good as the oil. It is imported from Iceland and the brand id "Sansen??.
I would appreciate any feedback.

Posted by: Mayia on October 31, 2005 11:48 PM


To fight deterioration of the spine/neck area,loss of vertebreas curvature, numbness and vibration of extremities, nausea, pain... What do you advize?

I appreciate your site I just discovered. it does bring to people a lot of truth I already know but never saw put together in a comprehensive way.
I hope you will do the same for many other subjects I am researching for. Your "Goal" to help people has been mine all my life.
Thank you.

Posted by: antoinette bulin on November 12, 2005 09:16 AM


Yes oil needs to be emulsified. Your body cannot break down or absorb a blob of fat. To emulsify shake a tbsp with some lecithin and diluted lemon juice in a jar or just mix ii with some kind of liquid untill you see many tiny droplets. Because of this I would advise not taking capsules.

The vit. D in CLO helps you absorb calcium. Make sure you are getting adequate calcium, but with this you need to also supplement with magnesium chloride (you can even get industrialised salts in bulk!). This is the foundation of good bones. Vit c. i sneeded for the formation of cartilage, but with this you also need folate...It pays to change your whole diet!

Posted by: Mandy on November 27, 2005 05:44 PM


PLEASE LET ME KNOW HOW I WOULD GET cod liver oil, instead of
the capsules..I REALLY GET

Posted by: FAY TROPPY on January 12, 2006 02:59 PM


Cod liver oil capsules (pills)along with apple cider vinegar capsules have helped me to lose 25 lbs, clear up my skin, and my hair is just alot healthier and shinier! I see alot of questions, and Im gonna try to answer them!! lol. I take 6 cod liver oil capsules a day, and 9 apple cider vinegar capsules daily as well. Theyre all natural, and safe. Dont worry, u cant overdose!! I find that together, theyre awesome in losing weight.. NOT saying eat like a pig, but just normal sized portions, and say bye bye to fat, acne, dry hair, brittle nails, heartburn, (thats right),angina pain (heart),arthritic pains, helps heal ulcers and other stomach problems, blackheads,and theyre great during pregnancy! My 4 kids were healthier than any others, so far!! lol!! I did my best trying to post at least 1 answer on this site! (its not my site, so not sure what else to say) Take care all!! see u soon! Tammy.
Pls let me know if this helps anyone!!

Posted by: Tammy on January 17, 2006 05:39 PM


The pills can be purchased at any supermarket, in the pharmacy dept. U can buy them over the counter. (u dont need a prescription.)

Posted by: Tammy on January 17, 2006 05:42 PM


Yes, thats true Tammy. But, I know that you can not take cod liver oil at any time during pregnancy. You must have meant the apple vinegar during pregnancy.

Posted by: Lisa on January 18, 2006 01:46 AM


Lisa, you certainly can take cod liver oil when pregnant not to do so is a disservice to you child to be...

Posted by: Chris Gupta on January 18, 2006 11:29 AM


Sorry Lisa but I have to agree w/ Chris on that one. I had 4 pregnancies and I took cod liver oil pills as soon as I found out I was pregnant.My kids turned out healthy,all have great skin, and no health problems. Oldest is now 22.Youngest 17.
Worked for them!! Gotta say ur wrong Lisa!

Posted by: Tammy on January 20, 2006 11:48 AM


Chris Gupta, I see you POSTED ABOUT FIVE RESPONSES over the past couple of years. Though I enjoy the info on this site, what is the point in having readers comments.

Response: Other readers can also respond as you can see. I only respond as time permits

Posted by: Joann on January 26, 2006 03:14 AM


my father has tried just about all of the cholesterol medicine and all of them make his feet and legs hurt severely. Is there anything natural you would recomend? Does the cod liver oil really work.

Posted by: Sybil on January 26, 2006 10:40 AM


I have taken fish oilfor almost 1 year . This past week I became very sick with diarea and noticed the fish oil capsule had not even opened and there was hard solid matter inside . It was a brand new bottle that I got from Walgreens Should I contact the health Dept? Maybe these bottles should be recalled. Thanks Patty

Posted by: Mandy on February 7, 2006 02:36 AM


I have extremely dry skin. Can cod lover help me out? If not, what can

Posted by: Kay on February 27, 2006 02:19 PM


please email me if you have ifo regarding the benefits of CLO fro dry skin.

Posted by: Kay on February 27, 2006 02:21 PM


Dear All,
Any one recommend a natural treatment drugs/drops for dissolving Eye Catract.


Posted by: Kim on February 28, 2006 01:11 AM



Posted by: Denise on March 6, 2006 01:17 AM


AMAZING!!! as i previously posted, i hav been taking CLO evryday for approx 1 year now. Afew days ago i started getting symtoms of the flu that has been hitting amny people i know. That night i felt absolutely miserable adn thoght to myself that i will probably b bed riddin for a couple of days as usual....but...the next morning i couldnt belive it!! i was actually feelin well enough to go about every day chores!!! Then the folowing day i was practically 100%!!!! Now i can honestly say i have personally experienced the miraculous properties of CLO 1st hand!!!

Posted by: Gerald on March 13, 2006 05:40 AM


Folks out there:

Just TAKE it!!

I am of Norwegian/Swedish descent - my Grandmother (mothers side) was from Norway and my father from Sweden

Posted by: Roger on March 15, 2006 08:48 AM


Has anyone had a positive experince/results using CLO with a young child who has learning disabilites(PDD) neurological impairment following 1-yr MMR vaccine?

Posted by: Lisa on March 16, 2006 09:22 AM


Dear All,

Any one recomend a natural treatment drugs/drops for dissolving Eye Cataract.


Posted by: Kim on March 17, 2006 11:32 PM


Kim see:

Cataracts & Vision - Carnosine and N-Acetylcarnosine Eye Drops

Posted by: Chris Gupta on March 18, 2006 11:03 PM


Thanks Mr. Chris Gupta for the info. but I wonder does this product Carnosine registered or conformed with any Medical standards(Europian or American) and if not why?
Kind Regards,

Posted by: on March 25, 2006 04:19 AM


pleas tell me if taking clo pills will help will allergies my eye are black and my nose is always stuffy

Posted by: darlen on April 7, 2006 06:59 PM


Well, I for one love this site.

Thank you so much all for the informative comments.

I am new to clo, sixty four, a hairstylist who does NOT want carpel tunnel.........feeling great,

Thanks to all, and I will post some more as I get more "smarts"


Posted by: Carol on July 30, 2006 10:26 AM


Thank you for the infomation on cod liver oil.I WILL TRY IT BECAUSE i HAVE A LOT OF THINGS GOING ON WITH ME.

Posted by: liz m on August 5, 2006 03:13 AM


I was told to give my mildly PDD-NOS 3 yr old son CLO (teaspoon daily) for neuro improvement. I am now thinking the whole family should take it! I hope and pray it works!! We are also supposed to see a Homeopath soon.

Anyone had good results in a similar situation?

Posted by: L Winters on August 31, 2006 10:07 PM


Read all the questions with interest BUT

Posted by: Bill on September 21, 2006 05:52 PM


Dear Sir, Someone advised me to take omega 3 capsules but I could not get that capsule in my city but I got cod liver capsule. I want to know that sir is omega 3 included in cod liver capsule or not? Means both are same thing or different? Means can I take only cod liver capsule in place of omega 3? Please reply me sir because I am in big cunfugen. Reply me soon. I am waiting for your reply thanks

Posted by: vijay on October 8, 2006 12:07 PM


I am diabetic type 2. Is it safe to take cod liver oil?

Posted by: alberto on October 24, 2006 03:47 PM


i have a kid who is 5 and is showing signs of inattentiveness....would cod liver oil or supplements be good.what is the difference between cod liver oil and omega3 and essential fatty oils.thanks

Posted by: irum on October 30, 2006 02:28 AM


Dosage for all ages, please?

Posted by: ellena on October 30, 2006 11:02 PM



Look into Bilberry for eye cataracts

Posted by: Sun on December 15, 2006 09:46 AM


Am in the Uk and diagnosed with Angina with40 narrowing of left artery.Still fit and excecise and enhance my diet with Sevev Seas Extra High Strength Cod Liver Oil,Co Q10,Vitamin E and C.
This is in addition to a stattin and low dose aspirin.Cod liver wont do any harm as its high in Omega 3s (2800mg) per 10ml.
All the worries re overdose on Vitamin A and D should not be a concern as long as you take the required dose.I take a dessert spoon daily of the oil as its stronger and purer,the capsules are gelatin and some other additives plus they work out more expensive.As per previous advice if the oil tastes too strong then mix it with milk,or juice,it wont affect the absorption.It wont do you any harm,when has anyone died from an overdose of Cod liver oil or other vitamins,they just give you an upset stomach and the body gets rid of it.Prescription drugs manufactured by the corporate world wide companies are the ones to beware of.

Posted by: JAMES on December 17, 2006 07:24 PM


Thanks Dear Sun,I will.

Posted by: kim on December 24, 2006 05:10 AM


Will someone PLEASE answer Patty. Patty, I wish I could help you but I can't I hope you get your answer. I am going to try the cod liver oil and post my results

Posted by: Sandra on January 24, 2008 05:39 PM


Tale the bottle back!

Go get real stuff from a health foods store. The kind that isnt in capsule. Then you dont have to worry about the pill not digesting.


Posted by: Wow on January 31, 2008 02:30 AM


can someone please answer the questions and i would like to know what is better for the skin cod liver oil or omega three seven seas capsules and also which is better if you do not want to loose weight

Posted by: sammy on February 1, 2008 04:43 PM


I take Nordic Naturals Arctic Cod liver oil from Tropical Traditions, it is flavored. Liquid is better. Rule of thumb: take less cod liver when you are out exposing your bare skin to the sun since you will be getting vit.D from the sun. Do your own research, I have and have learned a lot. I consider it a natural antidepressant. It is NOT water soluable, hence it can build up. Two teaspoons per day is sufficient, less or not at all in the sunny summer weather. I also take Krill oil caps all year from Mercola. I practice lots of other HEALTHY HABITS that contribute to my never getting sick, it's easier to prevent something than try to get rid of something once you have it. Remember: your immune system is your first line of defense against ANY disease or illness.

Posted by: Know-it-all on February 12, 2008 02:51 PM


Correction: I got my cod liver oil from Garden Of Life.

Posted by: Know-it-all on February 12, 2008 03:05 PM


Dear All, Cod liver oil in uncapsulated form (liquid form) in a bottle is available at chemist shops. I personally got health benefits from COD LIVER OIL CAPSULES - a bottle of which i keep in my drawer at office. As regards whether its good or bad for diabetes-i have read both versions on internet.Some say that its good while some articles say that its bad. (To all diabetics)-The next time you visit an endocryologist /diabetes specialist,pls check out without fail & the reason why its bad-if it is so certified. By the way-white vinegar (4 spoons a day before lunch) & half a cup of BITTERGOURD on empty stomach early in the morning works wonders for high diabetes. pls try for 2-3 weeks & go for sugar test.Hopefully there will be a wonderful healthy surprise for you. best regards/prasad lbv

Posted by: L B V PRASAD on February 21, 2008 03:47 AM


PLS ANSWER THIS. Does CLO capusules cause my SKIN TO BE EXCESSIVELY GREASY ? I have been taking them for years and enjoy the benefits. However I take them before bedtime. Is it better to take in the morning or at night time or does it matter ? Are they there cause of my oil sick skin ? Many thanks, hope someone can answer !

Posted by: ANON M on April 2, 2008 01:56 PM


awaiting my reply 2 question asked yesterday

Posted by: ANON M on April 3, 2008 03:24 PM


can anyone answer me PLS ?

Posted by: ANON M on April 9, 2008 03:19 PM


i just starting to use it hope its using it mainly for my under weight.thanks all

Posted by: jumbo on April 26, 2008 09:28 AM


I just began my therapy with CLO capsules (recommended 1-2 per day) have doubled that and will be taking 2 caps twice a day. Seeking improvement in a skin condition that has not been diagnosed and for acute asthma (had a severe attack a few days ago and almost died). Am on high dosages of Prednisone and tapering off now. I live in Alaska and so we do have lots of day light now but sooo much less in the winter months. Also, my St. Bernard was diagnosed with bone cancer (a portion of the bone has already deteriorated) and we have been feeding her lots of salmon (we catch from the Yukon River), but after reading all the info I'm going to add CLO to her diet. Thanks for the website - it has been great - I do hope that Patti gets an answer or at least a new bottle from Walgreens. I'll post in a week what my results (and "Sassy's") have been.

Posted by: Suzette on May 8, 2008 03:18 AM


I am in the UK and take Seven Seas High Strength CLO in liquid form, have posted in Jan 06. One cap ful 10ml has the equivalent of 8-10 capsules and it is absorbed quicker. 10 ml has 2800 mg Omega 3 and 2300 mg of EPA & DHA. Simple answer to Patty is take the liquid not the capsule.It probably did not digest.If its a one off forget it, if its not see your doctor or report it to the health authorities and manufacturer. Anon M,my wife and I dont seem to suffer from greasy skin,we usually take the CLO in the morning with breakfast.How much are you taking?

Posted by: James on May 26, 2008 07:17 AM


I am 72 years old.Since I have been taken Cod liver oil(I started about 30 year ago)I HAVE NEVER BEEN SICK.I have never seen a doctor.I am convinced I will not die from cancer as I keep my immune system strong.I find it so hard to convince people although I am the living proof of health.It is a must for older people as their resistance against deceases diminishes with ageing.I used to get gout when I was younger,not anymore and I am not surprised as a strong immune system fights any assault be it viral bacterial or inflammatory.I take 2 table spoons when I go to bed same people may need more or less depending the strength of their immune system.Try it. You will be surprised with the results.

Posted by: ferdy on June 21, 2008 01:19 PM


Hi all, I am 38 and I grew up taking cod liver oil. Our father kept it in the house. Every day we would have 1 tablespoon full. I don't know if it were the CLO or the genes but I am always mistakened for being approximately 16 to 18 years old. I am from African decscent and I live in Detroit, MI. Our father is a healthy 85. He get around with no assistants at all and mom is 66. I just say take the cod liver oil and if you have concerns do some research for your self. Peace. And for the lady that asked about cataracts, try making a turmeric tea it will also help with arthritis pain.

Posted by: tIMAH on September 16, 2008 11:22 AM


does anyone know where I can buy the smallest cod liver oil capsules produced?for some one who needs to take it but can't swallow the oil or the smallest I could find,thanks for your time on this matter :-)

Posted by: caroline on November 27, 2008 01:22 PM


In response to Sybil question about cholesterol. Eat uncooked hemp seeds daily. Peace

Posted by: free on November 29, 2008 11:39 AM


As far as I can tell, all of the questions that go unanswered (on this and other pages) are either 1/answered at least briefly in the article above (try reading a second or even third time to get a better sense of things) or 2/are requests for some sort of diagnosis, which no doctor can legally make without physically examining the person. The bottom line for us all is EDUCATE YOURSELF - you know your body better than any 'expert', no one else will spend as much time and effort as you about your health, and once you begin to understand how the body is SUPPOSED to function (think prevention, boosted immunity, helping the body fix itself instead of waiting and taking a 'symptom fix'), then you will start to spot natural things that will support your body, align them gradually within your personal health program (which will become as automatic as brushing your teeth), and the experts can then become your partner in good health. I also want to confirm an above post - use your 'educated instinct' to guide you, but you can trust natural remedies a whole lot easier than you can trust any man-made drugs. If used with good sense and within reason, they'll at least give you a mild warning before doing any lasting damage!

Posted by: fan on January 16, 2009 05:28 AM


I have used Cod Liver oil and have noticed that used to have constipation problems, but with taking supplement,go to the restroom much easier,no problems anymore with a lot of gas when consuming dairy, and yes I will also agree helps guard against cold & flu so is definitely an immunity defense builder.

Posted by: Laurie P on February 25, 2009 11:11 PM


I just love your site. I have stopped taking multivitamins about one month ago. I have been on jamieson cod liver oil capsules since. I have noticed many changes in my body. Increased mobility,I may back up the buick without undoing my seatbelt, Skin is healthy,bowel movements are natural' I just feel better. thank you 66yearmale.

Posted by: Doug on March 11, 2009 10:32 AM



Posted by: DEBRA on March 14, 2009 10:26 AM


I understand your frustration with so many unanswered questions. Hope you don't mind me giving a link to my own site, but almost all the questions I see here are answered in one of the posts listed here:

Posted by: Kelly the Kitchen Kop on April 20, 2009 11:42 PM


I am 67yrs, Numrous Heart problems. On the 9th of june ( one week ago) I had my second knee replaced, for my cardioligst to allow the surgery he had to run several test. Ending with a cath, which showed a 30 ejection fraction. So now I have to have a ICD installed. Do you think that Code Liver Oil (at this late date) will help me with future ailments ? I took it as a child. Thanks Floyd

Posted by: Floyd Trent on June 17, 2009 10:46 AM


i have fibromylia,arthrits.i am in pain for 24/7 now for over 10 yrs.i have just started taking cod liver oil.i also am conspitioned i have tried everything ,than i found out to eat a boiled beet at night time and this will help. kay

Posted by: kay on July 1, 2009 08:25 AM


Excellent information - I have recently added cod liver oil to my daily regiment. It was recommended as part of a healing protocol I am taking to work through a neurological disorder. Although I have not seen any direct results it is comforting to read the data that backs it's daily use. Many thanks for the article .... Be Well, Michelle

Posted by: Michelle on July 3, 2009 06:09 PM


My daughter is suffering from Brochial Asthama. so can I give her 1/2 teaspoon of codliver oil daily.Kindly advise.

Posted by: Rosy on December 6, 2009 07:53 AM


Cod liver oil pills are great. I recommend them to everyone. Nothing works better.

Posted by: Amanda on February 6, 2010 07:10 PM


Dear All, Can anyone tell me with conviction whether a person suffering from diabetes (hyperglycemia)take cod liver oil capsules??? Similarly a person suffering from low sugar -can she take cod liver oil capsules. BEST REGARDS LBV PRASAD

Posted by: L B V PRASAD on February 20, 2010 05:13 AM


Please, some specific help. School going children are being given Ritalin to get them to "calm down and conform" - a dangerous Schedule 2 drug for ill defined or undefined ADD & ADHD. Codliver oil and malt seems to have a far better effect without all the risks involved with the use of Ritalin. Please point me to research to confirm or correct this view


For some referances go here.


Posted by: K.S.Alston Ph.D on March 14, 2010 06:04 AM


Can cod liver oil create a burning sensation? I just want to know if anyone tried using it as ass lube. Ask your gf please and replay back. I just don't want my gf to think that Im weird or anything. You may ask why use cod liver oil as lube. Your colon can absorb it quicker than taking it orally. I care about my gf's health. And I want to justify having anal sex more often. So, lucky for you, women. Next time ask your husband to buy a bottle.

Posted by: Franek Kimono on June 5, 2010 06:59 AM


try "emu oil" ..its proven for heal the bones joint pain.

continue taking codliver oil promise to cure painful breasts & backache.

take care & take codliver oil

Posted by: cur on September 13, 2010 02:54 PM


Mr Franek KIMONO, i have never heard of using cod liver oil as a lube,thats pretty strange cuz even the smell of the fish alone wuld put me off. I am female, and wuldnt appreciate such act thank you.

Posted by: jeny on September 17, 2010 04:22 AM


Please let me know whether can I give to my 2 Year old girl

Posted by: Anil Patil on November 29, 2010 10:59 AM


Mr Kimomo clo is good also for man so find yourself someone to help you share the benefits of clo. anyway ı don't believe that you have a gf, ı guess you use it for wanking rather than f.

Posted by: louise on December 15, 2010 03:20 AM


must read

Posted by: sadath on December 29, 2010 10:00 AM


How can I get a steady supply of Mercola - Krill Oil in Nigeria. I based in Lagos - Nigeria. Thank you.

Posted by: David Wale Makinde on July 21, 2011 06:33 AM


I have an eight year old that I started giving clo to in January of this year because of chronic allergies, ear infections, weakness, and tiredness. We used to go to urgent care at least once a month and antibiotics after antibiotics weren't helping. If anything they were only weakening her. Since I started nine months ago we have not gone to the doctors nor has she been sick. She has been swimming this summer and no ear infections either.

Posted by: beach gal on September 25, 2011 05:55 PM


I have just bought the CLO. it was $29.00 i am going to take 1 tble spoon with food and then see how its goes. if works out well then ill try to take it twice a day. ill report back on my skin condition. Thanks for the great information on your articles.

Posted by: Windshield Replacement Fremont on September 26, 2011 09:32 PM


I miss having the omegas from fish since becoming a vegetarian, but there is a flaxseed oil that offers similar health benefits from what I understand.
Heard anything about non-fish oil alternatives?


Most are not aborbed as well as the fish oils generally.


Posted by: Michael on October 7, 2011 08:27 PM


Security code:

Please enter the security code displayed on the above grid

Due to our anti-spamming policy the comments you are posting will show up online within few hours from the posting time.




A Person Is Only As Valuable As She Can Be Of Help To Others


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

These articles are brought to you strictly for educational and informational purposes.
Be sure to consult your health practitioner of choice prior to any specific use of any of the non drug device or food based medicinal products referenced herein.



Enter your Email

Preview | Powered by FeedBlitz



Most Popular Articles

Bad News About Statin Drugs

Cod Liver Oil - Number One Superfood

Statin Drugs & Memory Loss

Cold remedies that really work.- update




Recent articles
Drinking Water Fluoridation is Genotoxic & Teratogenic

Democracy At Work? - PPM On Fluoride

"Evidence Be Damned...Patient Outcome Is Irrelevant" - From Helke

Why Remove Fluoride From Phosphate Rock To Make Fertilizer

FOFI Codex Meeting Report On Labelling May 9 - 13, 2011

Misconduct Of Health Canada Bureaucrats

Archive of all articles on this site



Most recent comments

Cold remedies that really work.- update

Why Doctors Don't Recommend More The Use Of Coq10?

Re: Dispelling the Night-Time Frequent Urination

Health via Meditation/Stress Reduction

Build a Low cost & simple Magnetic Pulser



Candida International

What Does MHRA Stand For??

Bono and Bush Party without Koch: AIDS Industry Makes a Mockery of Medical Science

Profit as Usual and to Hell with the Risks: Media Urge that Young Girls Receive Mandatory Cervical Cancer Vaccine


Health Supreme

Multiple sclerosis is Lyme disease: Anatomy of a cover-up

Chromotherapy in Cancer

Inclined Bed Therapy: Tilt your bed for healthful sleep


Evolving Collective Intelligence

Let Us Please Frame Collective Intelligence As Big As It Is

Reflections on the evolution of choice and collective intelligence

Whole System Learning and Evolution -- and the New Journalism

Gathering storms of unwanted change

Protect Sources or Not? - More Complex than It Seems



Islanda, quando il popolo sconfigge l'economia globale.

Il Giorno Fuori dal Tempo, Il significato energetico del 25 luglio

Rinaldo Lampis: L'uso Cosciente delle Energie

Attivazione nei Colli Euganei (PD) della Piramide di Luce

Contatti con gli Abitanti Invisibili della Natura


Diary of a Knowledge Broker

Giving It Away, Making Money

Greenhouses That Change the World

Cycles of Communication and Collaboration

What Is an "Integrated Solution"?

Thoughts about Value-Add


Best sellers from