Health Supreme by Sepp Hasslberger

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January 19, 2004

Sudden Infant Death - Eliminate With Vitamin C, Not Prison

258 convictions for killing children, with more than 50 parents still in prison, will be reviewed, according to an article in BBC News today. It is likely that many of the cases are not criminal offenses but a tragedy called Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Cot Death, gone unrecognized and turned into human tragedies with courts, prisons and all the trappings of destroyed families and lives.

Fortunately there is now a move to review more cases than the 258 originally thought of which resulted in imprisoned parents. Thousands of parents whose children were taken into care may have their cases re-opened as part of a wider review of cot death legal cases.

Solicitor General Harriet Harman told MPs a review of civil proceedings under family law - believed to number up to 5,000 cases - was being considered.

Jonathan Campbell says that the cause of SIDS has been known for years and the elimination of the scourge may be a simple matter of supplying enough of one of the vital elements - vitamin C - to both mother and child.

Read his interesting article:

Eradicate Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Now!

SIDS - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - is a tragic way for infants to die. The medical establishment seems to have no idea what causes it. Apparently healthy infants just suddenly die in their sleep, with no apparent warning. Two out of every thousand live-born infants die of this syndrome.

Cause Unknown or Cause Ignored?

But is the cause really unknown, or has it been ignored and marginalized? In the 1970s, an Australian doctor named Archie Kalokerinos volunteered to serve the Aboriginal people in the opal mining region of Australia. He found that an astonishing 50% of infants were dying, primarily from SIDS. He noted that the people and their infants were almost completely deficient of vitamin C in their diet, and began a supplementation program. Before long the infant mortality rate had dropped to near zero, and no child subsequently died of SIDS. In 1978, Dr. Irwin Stone, one of the doctors who pioneered research in vitamin C, reported this in a paper presented at the Conference On Controversies In Human And Clinical Nutrition that SIDS was in fact a result of what he called Chronic Subclinical Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency):

"The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Crib Death, has been shown by the Australian workers, A. Kalokerinos and G. Dettman, to be a manifestation of infantile scurvy, due to the fact that all infants, born of mothers who depended solely on their diet as their only source of ascorbate, are born with the CSS Syndrome after nine months of intrauterine scurvy (Stone. 1978). SIDS can be prevented by increasing the infant's intake of ascorbate (Cook, 1978). This has been known and published since 1974 (Kalokerinos, 1974)." (Irwin Stone, Eight Decades of Scurvy - The Case History of a Misleading Dietary Hypothesis, 1978).

Many of these infants were dying after receiving government-mandated vaccinations. Dr. Thomas Levy writes:

"Vaccinations also generally present some degree of toxin insult to the body. Kalokerinos (1981) observed that vitamin C-deficient Aboriginal infants were often placed into an acute state of scurvy because of the additional vitamin C demands placed on their bodies by the vaccination injections, resulting in sudden death." (Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD, Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, & Toxins - Curing The Incurable, 2002).

Dr. Kalokerinos wrote about his experience in his first book Every Second Child, and with the help of other physicians organized a national tour of the U.S. with the other physician who worked with him on vitamin C and SIDS, Dr. Glen Dettman. But the medical profession here and the NIH marginalized and ignored his work.

Fast-forward to 2004. Here we are, thirty years after two courageous doctors found the root cause - and cure - for SIDS. Tens of thousands of infants have died unnecessarily, and more infant deaths seem inevitable. These are tragic deaths that were and are totally preventable. But doctors all over the world are still looking for an elusive cause, there are hundreds of SIDS research sites and support networks, and no one is talking about the vitamin C connection or doing anything about it, with the exception of a few doctors who have been using large-dose vitamin C for years such as Robert Cathcart of Los Altos, California. The medical establishment just refuses to believe that this syndrome could be caused by a simple nutrient deficiency.

Large Amounts of Vitamin C Essential for Health

Vitamin C - an essential nutrient more accurately called ascorbate - is needed by the human body in large quantities for literally dozens of metabolic processes, from tissue repair to recycling of cholesterol to neutralization of free radicals and toxins to the building of antibodies and white blood cells. Most animals - other than humans, primates, guinea pigs, and a couple of rare animals - produce their own vitamin C in large amounts from glucose (a simple sugar found in blood), either in their liver (mammals) or their kidneys (reptiles).

The optimum dose for all of these metabolic processes is about 200-1000 mg per 10 lbs of body weight, depending on the level of stress, activity, environmental toxins, and general health. We "use up" vitamin C faster if we work in a stressful job, exercise heavily, are exposed to toxins, or if we are ill.

If we do not ingest any vitamin C, we get scurvy; we need vitamin C to repair normal microscopic wear and tear of the walls of our arteries, and when they cannot be repaired, they hemorrhage. We literally bleed to death internally.

But what happens if we get some, but not enough? The "Recommended Daily Allowance" of vitamin C is a small fraction of the amount we - and infants - really need. Many metabolic processes will be compromised, but the outward signs won't be obvious. Artery wall repair will happen more slowly, and the human body compensates for this deficiency with a sticky plaque called lipoprotein(a) - the root cause of cardiovascular disease. Antibodies and white blood cells will be built incorrectly or not at all. Cholesterol, needed for nutrient transport, will not be recycled properly.

For infants, this is deadly. Their little bodies have very little reserves to draw upon. Without sufficient vitamin C, their immune systems and arteries are fragile. A single stressful event, a minor fall, a vaccination, a toxic exposure, or a simple virus or bacterial illness could tip the balance and kill them. Metabolic failure, heart failure, toxic trauma to vital organs, hemorrhage - it could happen dozens of ways. Sudden death, with no warning. SIDS.

We Can Eradicate SIDS

It's now time to eradicate this syndrome once and for all. It is time to supplement every child's diet with a minimum of 200 mg of vitamin C per day for each 10 lbs of body weight, and more - up to 1000 mg per day for each 10 lbs of body weight - for children who are ill or whose immune systems are compromised. For example, you would give a newborn infant (7-10 lbs) a minimum of about 150-200 mg per day.

If a child is ill or stressed, his or her body uses far more than that. It is easy to find out how much vitamin C a child really needs - too much causes a non-harmful, temporary diarrhea, and you just reduce the dosage until the diarrhea subsides. This is called the "bowel tolerance dose" by Dr. Robert Cathcart, who has been treating his patients with large-dosage vitamin C for more than twenty-five years.

Vitamin C that is usable for children is available in liquid form (such as Child-Life Vitamin C liquid) from many health food stores or online. Do not use varieties sweetened with honey or containing a lot of ingredients. Spread out the daily dose in three divided doses. Measure it carefully and mix it with orange juice to give it to your child.

Pregnant mothers need to take vitamin C to provide enough to their babies in the womb, using the same formula of 200 mg per 10 lbs of body weight, or about 3000-4000 mg per day, in divided doses, for an adult of typical weight. You should take much more - up to your "bowel tolerance dose" - if you are ill or under stress. Vitamin C deficiency during gestation can profoundly affect the normal development of the child.

Here's how to do the calculation: take your body weight or the weight of your child, divide by 10, and then multiply by 200 mg to get the minimum dose of vitamin C. So for a child who weighs 20 lbs, you divide 20 by 10, result 2, then multiply by 200, result 400 mg per day minimum dose. For an adult who weighs 150 lbs, divide by 10, result 15, then multiply by 200, result 3000 mg per day minimum dose.

For increased dosage if the child is ill or his or her immune system is compromised, you can provide up to 100-200 mg per 10 lbs of body weight for each individual dose, up to 5 doses per day, checking for bowel tolerance: if diarrhea occurs, reduce dosage until it subsides and then continue with a reduced dosage. Vitamin C can save the child's life in cases of severe influenza or pneumonia. (Always confer with a competent pediatrician if a child is severely ill! It is important to find a pediatrician who believes in vitamin C, so that if the child is hospitalized they will continue with vitamin C supplementation.) Once the child is well, gradually reduce vitamin C to the dosage you use regularly.

For vaccinations: In general, I recommend that parents seriously consider not vaccinating their children, and certainly never to vaccinate against hepatitis B, because the vaccine has a horrific reputation for harming children, and hepatitis B is both extremely rare and also quite curable. Vaccines in general contain both live (but "attenuated") viruses and a brew of toxic chemicals and preservatives, sometimes including mercury (thimerosal). This places a huge burden on the child's immune system, and quickly depletes vitamin C. Many SIDS victims have died shortly after vaccinations.

If you decide to vaccinate your child, increase the vitamin C dose dramatically several hours before and for several days after the vaccination to prevent vitamin C depletion and so that the child's immune and detoxification systems will have a chance to kill the viruses and neutralize the toxins. Demand non-thimerosal, single-dose, single-virus vaccines; the multiple-virus vaccines such as DPT and MMP have the worst reputations regarding harm to infants. Tetanus is probably the only disease for which there is any real justification for vaccination.

Is Vitamin C safe in these doses?

Vitamin C is safe in literally any amounts. As mentioned above, it is an essential nutrient needed in large quantities for dozens of metabolic processes. Many people, including this author, have taken very large doses of vitamin C for many years without any side effects, and live healthier lives as a result. 100,000 mg to 300,000 mg amounts have been given intravenously to people who are very ill with AIDS and other illnesses, with no adverse effects. It does not cause kidney stones, heart disease, or cancer; as a matter of fact, it prevents them. The pharmaceutical industry and its allies have gotten the media to spread false warnings about large-dose vitamin C to the media, and the refutations by prominent researchers and clinicians are never printed.

Eradicate SIDS Now!

Let's make SIDS history! If you are pregnant or you have an infant or older child, please begin vitamin C supplementation now. A Microsoft Word version of this article is available at for public distribution. Please print, copy, send, and distribute this printable document widely, to your friends and relatives who have children, to everyone you know.

Jonathan Campbell, Health Consultant

January 15, 2004


Kalokerinos Archie, Every Second Child. Thomas Nelson (Australia) Ltd., Melbourne, 1974.

Kalokerinos Archie, Medical Pioneer of the 20th Century. Biological Therapies Publishing, 2000

Levy Thomas, Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, & Toxins - Curing the Incurable. Xlibris, 2002.

Hattersley J, The Answer to Crib Death "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome" (SIDS), Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Volume 8, Number 4, 1993, pp.229-245

Stone I, Eight Decades of Scurvy - The Case History of a Misleading Dietary Hypothesis, presentation at the Conference On Controversies In Human And Clinical Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine, Hyannis, Massachusetts. July 16, 1978

See also related

Is It Child Abuse -- Or Something Else Entirely?
by Susan Pearce
Often a child will be thought to have been abused, when in fact low vitamin C stores, combined with the stresses of vaccination or infection, may have produced the physical signs suggesting abuse. Bruising, subdural hematoma, brain swelling, retinal hemorrhages, and even rib fractures are all signs of severe vitamin C deficiency, or infantile scurvy; but the need for blood vitamin C analysis and appropriate treatment may not be appreciated.

Vitamin C Can Boost the Immune System - 03-02-2005
DENVER People who take daily doses of Vitamin C can boost their immune system, potentially protecting themselves from viruses and colds, according to a study presented at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI).

Shaken Baby Syndrome or Medical Malpractice?

Baby death trials to be reviewed

Wider cot deaths review considered

GMC probes expert's murder claims

Doubt over shaken baby diagnosis

Pollutants linked to cot deaths

Making an informed choice - what your physician does not tell you

BBC - 21 Dec 2004 - Child death cases to be reviewed
The cases of 28 parents convicted of killing their children will be investigated further, the Attorney General has announced. Lord Goldsmith told the House of Lords he had written to the families' solicitors about the review. But in 180 cases out of 297 examined, he will take no further action.

Discovery Shows New Vitamin C Health Benefits
Researchers in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University have made a major discovery about the way vitamin C functions in the human body - a breakthrough that may help explain its possible value in preventing cancer and heart disease.

BBC News, 16 June 2005 - Shaken baby convictions 'unsafe'
A "substantial question mark" hangs over the convictions of four people jailed for killing or harming babies by shaking them, appeal judges have heard. If the four are cleared at the Appeal Court, about 90 other cases of "shaken baby syndrome" could be challenged.

GMC finds Clark professor guilty
The General Medical Council has found Professor Sir Roy Meadow guilty of giving erroneous and misleading evidence in the Sally Clark case.

Meadow struck off for misleading the Sally Clark trial
By Sam Lister, Health Correspondent
July 16, 2005 - SIR ROY MEADOW, one of the country's most eminent paediatricians, was struck off the medical register yesterday for giving erroneous and misleading evidence which helped to convict Sally Clark of murdering her two sons.

SIDS Linked to Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution
USA: July 20, 2005 - NEW YORK - High outdoor levels of nitrogen dioxide apparently raise the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), according to California-based researchers.

Abuse of Child Abuse Laws - Shaken Baby Syndrome


posted by Sepp Hasslberger on Monday January 19 2004
updated on Monday November 29 2010

URL of this article:


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Readers' Comments

This is one of those terrible stories!

Yurko is in jail for a case of SID caused by a vaccination:

Posted by: Ivan on January 23, 2004 04:43 PM


I found out about vit c by searching the internet for a possible cure for renal cell ca for a friend of mine. I don't know any doctors around here who know about ascorbate and its uses.
The convincing argument for me was when I found out that man cannot produce ascorbate and the large amounts made by animals every day. Knowing this fact and setting a RDA at 60mg is murder. If they know this fact and set that RDA they should be "drawn and quartered".

A Drudge Report article today chronicles the effects of eating at McDonalds every meal for 30 days. You need to get this before it is pulled from public view by the power brokers.

WM Wassell, MD

Posted by: william wassell, md on January 26, 2004 10:09 PM


Dear Dr. Wassell,

thank you for your comment. As for the drudge report, it seems too late - can't find it anywhere. Maybe I am looking in the wrong places.

In any case, you're right about the vitamin C scandal. Those guys should be drawn and quartered - but maybe we can find a more humane if not less cruelling punishment??

Posted by: Josef on January 27, 2004 12:53 PM


Here is the story from the New Zealand Herald featured on Drudge on Monday.

Posted by: Jeremy Smith on January 27, 2004 09:55 PM


Good Work. Just found your site, keep going the truth will come out eventually


Posted by: G MUNRO-HALL on January 28, 2004 09:43 PM

This research is amazing and it baffles me as to why, based on the proof of effectiveness, these vitamins go largely ignored by Doctors, hospitals and pharmacy technicians.

Just try to get a Doctor to take you seriously when you present this to them. My Grandfather is going in for open heart surgery for a double bybass and valve replacement. So far my suggestions and requests for vitamin c supplements have been ignored.
Peace and health,
Deborah Galarza

Posted by: Deborah Galarza on February 19, 2004 01:54 AM


thanks for your comment. Yes, we do need a crusade, and I believe we may already have one. Little by little, with people INFORMING THEIR DOCTORS, we will put medicine right.

Unfortunately, in university training doctors study only drugs, no nutrition and no real physiology/biochemistry apart from what's needed to justify prescribing pharmaceutical medicines. For sure a sad state of affairs, but one we must confront and put right.

Posted by: Josef on February 19, 2004 12:09 PM


thank you so much

Posted by: boelo Niemeijer on February 22, 2004 03:39 AM


While in the UK, "shaken baby syndrome" is being reviewed widely to eliminate injust prison sentences, in the US people continue to languish behind bars for what the vaccine manufacturers should rightly take the blame.

The following is an appeal by Lisa Mullenax, recently published in Nexus Magazine.

My beautiful 3 1/2-month-old baby Lucas was killed by adverse reactions to vaccines and overdose of medications. As a result, my husband and I have lost our home, our savings, our careers and our reputations because we were accused by the medical establishment of having killed our precious baby. Our lives have radically changed in this past year. The police investigated our son's death for 11 1/2 months and then came by surprise and indicted my husband. My husband, Alejandro, is currently incarcerated due to incompetent physicians and blatant medical malpractice. He is charged with first and third degree murder and the state of Pennsylvania is seeking the death penalty.

Please read the following toxicology report written by Dr Mohammed Al-Bayati. This highly respected toxicologist and pathologist conducted a thorough investigation into the true causes of our son's death, which led him to make some startling discoveries. His extensive report was recently published during a "shaken baby syndrome" conference co-hosted by Nicholas Regush and Sandy Mintz and available at Red Flags Weekly. The evidence produced in his report will speak for itself. We have two physicians that concur with Dr Al-Bayati's diagnosis and numerous others are presently reviewing my baby's medical records.

We are not by any means an isolated incident. The "shaken baby syndrome" epidemic is becoming a national crisis as thousands of innocent people are being victimized by these false allegations. Many have been wrongly convicted. Please go to this website to read more.

We are asking for your assistance in exposing this witch-hunt to bring about an increased awareness of this growing tragedy and will in turn help to prevent future infant deaths. Until more cases like ours are exposed, babies will continue to die needlessly as a result of adverse reactions to these allopathic drugs. Devastating accusations will continue to destroy other innocent people's lives if the medical establishment continues to refuse to perform differential diagnoses once mention of "shaken baby syndrome" is made. The tragedy of many "shaken baby syndrome" findings is that they are based on a theory that has not been borne out by current scientific or medical evidence. There is a dichotomy between many of the medical experts - many of whom strongly debate the validity of this theory.

By disseminating this information, you will make it possible for others to learn from our personal experience. These iatrogenic injuries must be exposed. We are not asking for your sympathy; we are asking that you help us to change the way the medical profession currently deals with these injuries so that the same grave errors will not continue to be repeated. Our society has an obligation to its citizens to not allow these miscarriages of justice to perpetuate. A paradigm shift is approaching within the medical establishment and we must act now to expose this tragedy for the sake of our children.

Dr Al-Bayati is more than willing to help anyone in the same situation as ourselves, and to answer questions of the media. His contact details are: Mohammed Al-Bayati, PhD, DAB, DABVT, Toxicologist and Pathologist, Toxi-Health International, 150 Bloom Drive, Dixon, CA 95620, USA, telephone (707) 678 4484, fax (707) 678 8505, e-mail, website:

Please, we need your support. This can happen to anyone. Our Lucas has a healthy baby until he was administered his two-month immunisations. Young parents tend not to know or understand the potential lethal ramifications of immunizations and medications. My only goal is to increase awareness of this growing epidemic so that other innocent families are not afflicted by these heinous allegations - because no matter which of the two happens, the families' lives will be profoundly affected forever.

Lisa Mullenax
Hartstown, Pennsylvania, USA

The following website by Susan Kreider, RN, a vaccine-injured adult, has more information pertaining to our case.

Posted by: Sepp on July 9, 2004 03:32 PM


Knowledge of Health, Inc.
457 West Allen Avenue #117 San Dimas, Ca. 91773 USA
Phone: 909 596-9507 Fax: 909 596-9189 Email:


With newly published research reports showing that higher concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved in the blood plasma than previously thought possible, antioxidant researchers have penned their names to a plea for a scientific re-evaluation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C.

A dozen prominent antioxidant researchers, authors, and clinicians say the prevalent belief that 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C, an amount that can be obtained by eating five servings of selected fresh fruits and vegetables, can saturate the blood plasma and additional amounts are excreted in the urine, has now been disproved. Two recently published papers indicate that blood plasma levels of ascorbic acid can be raised three times greater than a flawed 1996 study indicates. One of the published studies shows that blood plasma concentrations of vitamin C continue to rise with a single 1000 milligrams dose of supplemental vitamin C.  

Drs. Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts, pharmacology graduates of the University of Manchester in England assert the initial studies used to determine the blood plasma saturation point for vitamin C failed to calculate for the half life of this vitamin. In their newly published book, Drs. Hickey and Roberts show that the original calculations used to establish the RDA were performed 12 hours, or 24 half lives, after oral consumption of vitamin C and are therefore invalid. (Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C, 264 pages, referenced, ebook:

In addition to Drs. Hickey and Roberts, the list of researchers calling for a re-evaluation of the RDA for vitamin C includes: Thomas E. Levy MD, JD, author of Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation; 2002); Robert F. Cathcart III, MD, a practicing physician and advocate of high oral-dose vitamin C therapy; Richard Passwater PhD, antioxidant researcher and author of Supernutrition; Patrick Holford, London, author of the Optimum Nutrition Bible; Dr Archie Kalokerinos, M.D., Graduate Sydney University, Australia, author of Vitamin C: Nature's Miraculous Healing Missile; Joel M. Kaufman, PhD, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, special interest in medicinal chemistry; Professor Ian Brighthope, Managing Director, Nutrition Care Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, Australia; Hugh D. Riordan, M.D., Director - Bio-Communications Research Institute, Wichita, Kansas; and Abram Hoffer, M.D., PhD., F.R.C.P., a practicing physician, advocate of nutritional medicine and editor of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 

The written plea was sent to the Institutes of Medicine, Food & Nutrition Board, which establishes the Recommended Dietary Allowances for essential nutrients. ####


August 23, 2004

Linda D. Meyers, PhD
Director, Food & Nutrition Board
Institute of Medicine
500 Fifth Street NW
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: 202.334.3153 Fax: 202.334.1412

Catherine Woteki, PhD
Chair, Food & Nutrtion Board
Dean and Director
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Iowa State Univ., College of Agriculture
138 Curtiss Hall
Ames, Iowa 50011
Phone: 515 294-2518  
Fax: 515 294-6800

Paul M. Coates, PhD
Office of Dietary Supplements
National Institutes of Health
Suite 3B01, MSC 7517
6100 Executive Boulevard
Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7517
Fax: 301 480-1845

Senator Thomas Harkin
Attention to: Peter Reinecke,
Chief of staff
731 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
Phone: (202) 224-3254
Fax: (202) 224-9369


As health professionals who have been involved in vitamin C research, it has recently come to our attention that higher blood plasma concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved through oral intake than previously thought possible. This scientific revelation has ramifications upon the current Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin C and personal health regimens for consumers. It is apparent the current published advice, that the blood plasma concentration for vitamin C is saturated at 200 milligrams oral consumption, must be revised. Furthermore, it is apparent the RDA for vitamin C needs immediate re-evaluation. We urge the scientific community and other responsible health authorities to take timely action to correct misinformation concerning oral dosing of vitamin C and to join an effort to re-evaluate the RDA for vitamin C.


Steve Hickey Ph.D., Metropolitan University of Manchester, England. Co-author, Ascorbate, The Science of Vitamin C,, 2004. ISBN 1-4116-0724-4 Telephone from USA: 011 44 161 962 5495

Hilary Roberts, Ph.D., graduate University of Manchester, England. Co-author, Ascorbate, The Science of Vitamin C,, 2004. ISBN 1-4116-0724-4

Professor Ian Brighthope, Managing Director, Nutrition Care Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, 25 - 27 Keysborough Avenue, Keysborough Victoria 3173 Australia, Phone: +613 9769 0811, Fax: +613 9769 0822

Robert F. Cathcart III, M.D., advocate of high-dose vitamin C therapy; 127 Second Street, Suite 4, Los Altos, California 94022; Telephone: 650-949-2822; FAX: 650-949-5083

Abram Hoffer, M.D., PhD., F.R.C.P. ; Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine; Suite 3 - 2727 Quadra St ; Victoria, British Columbia V8T 4E5 Canada; Telephone: 250-386-8756; Fax 604-386-5828; email:

Patrick Holford, London, founder of the Institute for Optimum Nutrition (ION) and the Brain Bio Centre; author of The Optimum Nutrition Bible, Tel: +44 (0)20 8871 2949 ex 22, Fax: +44 (0)20 8874 5003; Website:

Dr Archie Kalokerinos, M.D., Graduate Sydney University. He is a Life Fellow of the Royal Society for Health, a Fellow of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine, Fellow of the Australasian College of Biomedical Scientists, and a Member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He has authored Vitamin C: Nature's Miraculous Healing Missile (1993). Currently he is semi-retired, living in Tamworth, New South Wales. Address: 20 Kennedy Close, Cooranbong, Australia, NSW 2265; Telephone: 61 2 4977 2957; Email:

Joel M. Kauffman, PhD, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Emeritus Professor of organic chemistry, MIT. Special interest in medicinal chemistry. 65 Meadowbrook Rd. Wayne, PA 19087-2510. Telephone: 215- 596-8839. Email:

Thomas Edward Levy, M.D., J.D., Tulane University School of Medicine, 1972-76-M.D.; Fellowship in Cardiology, 1979-81, Tulane Univ. Affiliated Hospitals; author, Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable, Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation; 2002. Telephone: 800-331-2303, 719-548-1600; Fax 719 572-8081 or email to

Dr. Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D., antioxidant researcher, author "Supernutrition," Berlin, Maryland. Email: Telephone: 410-641-7411.

Hugh D. Riordan, M.D., President - The Center for the Improvement of Human Functioning Int'l, Inc., Director - Bio-Communications Research Institute, 3100 North Hillside Avenue, Wichita, KS 67219 U.S.A., Phone: 316-682-3100, Fax: 316-682-5054, e-mail:, website:

Andrew W. Saul, PhD, Contributing Editor, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Number 8 Van Buren Street, Holley, New York 14470 USA. Email:


Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, Riordan HD, Hewitt SM, Katz A, Wesley RA, Levine M., Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use, Annals Internal Medicine, April 6, 140: 533-37, 2004. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Cancer Institut, and the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
20892-1372, USA.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C at high concentrations is toxic to cancer cells in vitro. Early clinical studies of vitamin C in patients with terminal cancer suggested clinical benefit, but 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showed none. However, these studies used different routes of administration.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma vitamin C concentrations vary substantially with the route of administration.
DESIGN: Dose concentration studies and pharmacokinetic modeling.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PARTICIPANTS: 17 healthy hospitalized volunteers. MEASUREMENTS: Vitamin C plasma and urine concentrations were measured after administration of oral and intravenous doses at a dose range of 0.015 to 1.25 g, and plasma concentrations were calculated for a dose range of 1 to 100 g.
RESULTS: Peak plasma vitamin C concentrations were higher after administration of intravenous doses than after administration of oral doses (P smaller than 0.001), and the difference increased according to dose. Vitamin C at a dose of 1.25 g administered orally produced mean (+/-sd) peak plasma concentrations of 134.8 +/- 20.6 micromol/L compared with 885 +/- 201.2 micromol/L for intravenous administration. For the maximum tolerated oral dose of 3 g every 4 hours, pharmacokinetic modeling predicted peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 220 micromol/L and 13 400 micromol/L for a 50-g intravenous dose. Peak predicted urine concentrations of vitamin C from intravenous administration were 140-fold higher than those from maximum oral doses.
LIMITATIONS: Patient data are not available to confirm pharmacokinetic modeling at high doses and in patients with cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin C produces plasma concentrations that are tightly controlled. Only intravenous administration of vitamin C produces high plasma and urine concentrations that might have antitumor activity. Because efficacy of vitamin C treatment cannot be judged from clinical trials that use only oral dosing, the role of vitamin C in cancer treatment should be reevaluated.

Polidori MC, Mecocci P, Levine M, Frei B., Short-term and long-term vitamin C supplementation in humans dose-dependently increases the resistance of plasma to ex vivo lipid peroxidation, Archives Biochemistry Biophysics, March 423: 109-15, 2004. Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany.

To assess the effects of short-term and long-term vitamin C supplementation in humans on plasma antioxidant status and resistance to oxidative stress, plasma was obtained from 20 individuals before and 2h after oral administration of 2g of vitamin C, or from eight subjects enrolled in a vitamin C depletion-repletion study using increasing daily doses of vitamin C from 30 to 2500 mg. Plasma concentrations of ascorbate, but not other physiological antioxidants, increased significantly after short-term supplementation, and increased progressively in the long-term study with increasing vitamin C doses of up to 1000 mg/day. Upon incubation of plasma with a free radical initiator, ascorbate concentrations were positively correlated with the lag phase preceding detectable lipid peroxidation. We conclude that vitamin C supplementation in humans dose-dependently increases plasma ascorbate concentrations and, thus, the resistance of plasma to lipid peroxidation ex vivo. Plasma and body saturation with vitamin C in humans appears desirable to maximize antioxidant protection and lower risk of oxidative damage.

Posted by: Sepp on August 25, 2004 06:02 PM


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