Health Supreme by Sepp Hasslberger

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July 09, 2004

Researchers: Vitamin C Deficiency Widespread - Link to Heart Disease, Infections, Cancer

In their book "Ascorbate - The Science of Vitamin C", Steve Hickey PhD and Hilary Roberts PhD point out that deficiency of vitamin C is far more widespread than is generally acknowledged by medical doctors and dieticians today. The two scientists, specialized in medical biophysics and nutrition, have challenged the scientific basis of the recommended daily amounts for this vitamin with medical authorities including the NIH - the National Institutes of Health, the IOM - Institute of Medicine and its Food and Nutrition Board charging that the amounts recommended are inadequate and that the science that forms the basis of the recommendations is seriously flawed.

While vitamin C is a vital nutrient that plays a role in preventing many disease states, some of the major "diseases of civilization" including heart disease and stroke, infectious disease and "the big C" - Cancer - according to the researchers are directly attributable to having too little of it circulating in our veins or saturating our tissues.


Human bodies are unable to synthesize vitamin C internally and must therefore rely completely on absorbing what comes with foods - not much in this world of fast food and refined, overcooked meals most of us are used to eating. Even supplementation is not very effective if it is not repeated several times during the day, say Hickey and Roberts, because vitamin C has a very short half-life. The amount absorbed is used up quickly, decreasing by 50 per cent every 30 minutes. Along with other factors, it is this short half-life that confounded the scientific studies done to determine the "recommended" dose.

Medical News Today carries an article giving a short history of discovery and suppression of this vital nutrient.


Has there been an ongoing conspiracy against vitamin C pills? Did vitamin C researchers, Drs. Linus Pauling and Matthias Rath, uncover the primary cause of coronary heart disease in 1970, only to have their discovery shunned by modern medicine? Were factitious reports about vitamin C widely spread to create public doubt about high-dose vitamin C, such as the false claim that high-dose vitamin C causes gene mutations that could lead to cancer?

Now, in graphic detail, a documentary slide show reveals how government health authorities conducted flawed scientific experiments to hide the many health benefits of vitamin C. British researchers Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts reveal the flawed science, dispel the false idea that high-dose vitamin C creates nothing more than expensive urine, and show how humans can triple their blood concentrations of vitamin C and dramatically reduce their risk for heart attacks, cataracts, aneurysms, allergy and many other maladies. For the first time the public will view what happens inside arteries when vitamin C levels are low. Viewers will learn that most sudden-death heart attacks are not caused by cholesterol but a type of arterial plaque induced by a shortage of vitamin C.


The book of Hickey and Roberts can be obtained on line from Here is Bill Sardi's excellent summary:


Manchester, England - The authors of a new book claim the Institute of Medicine (IM) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) used flawed science to develop the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C, a blunder that has likely caused millions of people to prematurely suffer avoidable health problems such as cataracts, strokes, heart attacks and many other maladies.

Steve Hickey PhD and Hilary Roberts PhD, pharmacology professors and graduates of the University of Manchester in Britain, claim they have been in communication with the NIH and the IM for over a year, challenging their rationale which establishes the RDA for vitamin C at 75 and 90 milligrams for males and females respectively. Hickey and Roberts say some basic errors in biology make justification for the current RDA for vitamin C indefensible. Even a recently proposed 200-milligram daily intake would still be inadequate to achieve optimal health says Hickey and Roberts.


The main flaw -- the half life for vitamin C is quite short, about 30 minutes in blood plasma, a fact which NIH and IM researchers have failed to recognize. (Half life is the time it takes for half of a substance to be removed from the body.) NIH researchers established the current RDA based upon tests conducted 12 hours (24 half lives) after consumption. "To be blunt," says Hickey, "the NIH gave a dose of vitamin C, waited until it had been excreted, and then measured blood levels." 

Because vitamin C is used up rapidly, a very high single dose of vitamin C would not achieve the same concentration in the blood serum over time as two divided lower doses. Hickey and Roberts claim many negative studies using high-dose vitamin C have failed to recognize this fact and have therefore mistakenly concluded that high-dose supplemental vitamin C is ineffective. 


In the past year Hickey and Roberts have shaken the confidence of the IM and NIH, revealing that the medical establishment has failed to investigate the use of high-dose vitamin C properly, for more than 50 years. Hickey and Roberts have taken the IM and NIH to task for developing the RDA for vitamin C on studies using only 15 healthy test subjects. Normal variations would call for a greater pool of test subjects before establishment of an RDA for hundreds of millions of people. 

Furthermore, the RDA is intended to set a level of nutrient consumption that would prevent disease (scurvy) among the vast majority (95%+) of the population. Yet smokers (50 million), estrogen or birth control pill users (13 million and 18 million), diabetics (16 million), pregnant females (4 million) and people taking aspirin (inestimable millions) or other drugs, have increased need for vitamin C and comprise more than 35 percent of the population. The current RDA wouldn't meet the needs of these large subpopulations. 


Furthermore, Hickey and Roberts confronted the IM and NIH with their own contradictory data. The IM and NIH claim the saturation point is reached at a certain concentration of ascorbic acid in blood plasma but later published a paper showing repeated oral doses could achieve much higher concentrations, more than three times greater! [Annals Internal Medicine 140: 533-37, 2004] 

Because of the short half-life of ascorbic acid, five 100 milligram doses of oral vitamin C taken at intervals through the day will raise average blood levels more than a single 1000 milligram dose. Hickey says the blood plasma is not saturated when 1000 milligrams of vitamin C is consumed orally since NIH researchers themselves demonstrated 2500 mg dose produces even higher concentrations. Hickey and Roberts claim the minimum supplemental dose of oral vitamin C needed to sustain blood plasma levels is around 2500 milligrams a day in divided doses in healthy individuals. Millions of others (smokers, diabetics, etc.) have needs greater than this.

NIH researchers doggedly cling to their claim that no more than 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C is required for human health and that a diet which includes five servings of fruits and vegetables would provide 210-280 milligrams of vitamin C. [Biofactors 15: 71-74, 2001] But only 9 percent of the US population consumes 5 servings of plant foods daily. The National Cancer Institute has abandoned their 5-a-day recommendation and replaced it with 9-a-day servings of fruits and vegetables once they recognized five servings a day had not reduced the risk for cancer or heart disease. 


The recommended Tolerable Upper Limit for vitamin C, 2000 mg per day, gives the false impression that amounts beyond this would be toxic or produce side effects. In fact, 2000 mg of oral vitamin C would not meet the needs of millions of American adults. The only side effect at this dose is transient diarrhea which usually dissipates over time.


The mistaken idea that high-dose vitamin C supplementation saturates the blood plasma after a moderate dose of about 150 milligrams of oral vitamin C, and additional amounts are worthless since they are excreted in the urine, now must be abandoned, says Hickey and Roberts. More than a decade ago other researchers found that consumption of high-dose vitamin C (2000 mg per day) increased ascorbic acid levels in the human eye by 22-32 percent compared to when a so-called saturation dose (148 mg) is consumed. [Current Eye Research 8: 751, 1991] Ascorbic acid levels in other tissues in the body, such as the brain where vitamin C concentration is 10 times greater than in blood plasma [J Clinical Investigation 100: 2842, 1997], make it evident that blood plasma levels may not be the gold standard for measuring vitamin C adequacy in all tissues in the human body.


Hickey and Roberts' revealing book confirms the work of Dr. Linus Pauling, a long-time advocate of high-dose vitamin C supplementation. Pauling advocated consumption of supplemental vitamin C throughout the day and he consumed 18,000 milligrams of vitamin C in divided doses on a daily basis, a practice which overcomes the half-life decay problem. 

Pauling also conducted studies using intravenous vitamin C as a treatment for cancer. In recent months published scientific reports even call for a reevaluation of the use of high-dose intravenous vitamin C for cancer treatment now that a study shows that intravenous vitamin C can produce blood plasma concentrations of vitamin C that are more than six times greater than oral vitamin C. [Annals Internal Medicine 140: 533-37, 2004] Three years ago even NIH researchers proposed that ascorbate treatment of cancer should be reexamined by rigorous scientific scrutiny in the light of new evidence. [J Am College Nutrition 19:423-5, 2000] 

The inability to improve survival times in cancer patients with conventional cancer treatment has been disheartening. In 1991, it was reported that supplemental vitamin C, received by incurable cancer patients at some time during their illness, more than doubled their survival time. [Medical Hypotheses 36: 185-89, 1991] Indeed, Pauling and associates demonstrated that high-dose vitamin C more than quadrupled the survival times of terminal cancer patients. [Proceedings Nat'l Academy Sciences 73: 3685-89, 1976] But Pauling's research was discredited later when scientists claimed as little as 150 milligrams of vitamin C saturates the blood plasma and any more vitamin C than that is excreted. Now researchers recognize they made a grave error. Pauling even demonstrated that mice given high doses of vitamin C in their food were five times less likely to develop skin tumors when exposed to ultraviolet radiation than mice on low vitamin C diets. [Am J Clinical Nutrition 54:1252S-1255S, 1991] The significance here is that even high-dose oral supplementation may have preventive effects against certain forms of cancer. 


Hickey has called for the IM and NIH to retract the current RDA or provide scientific justification for their recommendation. The NIH has ceased communication with Hickey via email. 

Hickey and Roberts' new book, Ascorbate: the Science of Vitamin C, is available for immediate download ($6.00) at

ISBN 1-4116-0724-4
$6.00 online download
$22.32 soft cover at
6 X 9 inch perfect bound, fully referenced, 264 pages

Hilary Roberts
Hilary has a BSc in physiology and psychology, an MSc in computer science and a PhD in child health from the University of Manchester, England. Her PhD work was on the effects of early life undernutrition on brain development and later behaviour. For a time she was a lecturer in organisational behaviour at Manchester Business School, working with Professor Enid Mumford. She was also a member of the British Computer Society's working group on Sociotechnical Systems. Hilary has scientific and other publications ranging from brain research to computer systems implementation.

Steve Hickey
Steve has a BA (maths and science) from the Open University, Membership of the Institute of Biology by examination in pharmacology, is a Chartered Biologist and a former member of the British Computer Society. In the first year of his PhD research in medical biophysics at the University of Manchester, he won the international Volvo Award for Biomechanics. In his final year, he was runner up for the Volvo Basic Science award for work on the development and aging of the spine. Other awards include the annual award and medal of the Back Pain Society (1986). Following his PhD, he worked with Professor John Brocklehust on the function of the urethra. This was followed by research into ultra high resolution CT body scanning, leading the physics team in Europe's first clinical MR imaging unit at Manchester Medical School. He was also a member of the Medical Research Council's task force on MR imaging. Steve has over 100 scientific publications covering a variety of disciplines. Currently he is Technical Director of a computer company in Manchester Science Park. He is also working with Professor Enid Mumford on aspects of computer systems implementation. In addition, he is a member of the Biology Department of Manchester Metropolitan University. He is currently affiliated with the Metropolitan University of Manchester.

Contact: Steve Hickey at radicalascorbate [at]

Related articles:

Vitamin C Can Boost the Immune System - 03-02-2005
DENVER ó People who take daily doses of Vitamin C can boost their immune system, potentially protecting themselves from viruses and colds, according to a study presented at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI).

Arizona State University Researchers Find Scurvy Is Serious Health Problem
by AScribe Newswire on 6/18/2004

Absorption of Vitamin Megadoses - Errors in JAMA Vitamin C Article

Vitamin/Nutritional Supplements for Heart Attack


Vitamin C could be effective against SARS

Vitamin C beats statins in cholesterol - heart disease

Vitamins E, C effective in high doses - prevent Alzheimers

Ascorbic Acid could lower health care cost - Atomic Scientist says

Harvard Research in Tanzania Confirms: Multivitamin Slows AIDS Progression

Vitamin C may be a life-saver
Mega-doses of Vitamin C can counter avian flu, hepatitis and herpes, and can even control the advance of Aids - By Jane Feinmann
Imagine that a deadly virus is sweeping the world, killing and maiming hundreds of thousands of children. Nothing seems able to stop it - until a doctor stands up at the American Medical Association and reports on 60 cases involving severely infected children, all of whom have been cured. Yet his work, subsequently reported in a peer-review journal, is ignored, leaving the virus to wreak havoc for decades...

Pharmaceutical corporations accused of Genocide before ICC in The Hague

Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable, by Thomas E. Levy, M.D., J.D.

Discovery Shows New Vitamin C Health Benefits
Researchers in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University have made a major discovery about the way vitamin C functions in the human body - a breakthrough that may help explain its possible value in preventing cancer and heart disease.

Update 26 October 2004 - Here is a comment posted on Chris Gupta's site Share the Wealth, to an article titled Orthomolecular Solutions to Heart Disease, which I believe to be of general interest:

Posted on October 22, 2004 11:59 PM

by Sydney Bush PhD., DOpt. (IOSc. London)


A reply to Dr Isika Martins and others with similar problems of hypertension, enlarged heart etc., from Dr Bush.

Whilst I should like to assist, I cannot possibly comment on the cardiovascular problems of individuals in this forum but my general comments as an interested optometrist may be helpful.

Cardioretinometry, when practised by suitably trained and equipped optometrists is expected to enable this primary health care profession to determine, for the first time, what combination of nutrients effectively dissolves the cholesterol from the retinal (and hence coronary) arteries. Pauling/Rath theory suggests that the aetiology of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is nothing more than Chronic Unbalanced Circadian Atheroma (CUCA). This explains how the apparently fittest of athletes like Jim Fixx can die jogging. Cardiovascular repair is rate limited. As such it is vulnerable to many factors. This has encouraged the medical profession for too long into simply regarding it as complex multifactorial disease probably rooted in cholesterol and saturated fats. But the mystery tends to disappear with the application of Pauling/Rath theory. The ratio of wear to repair is critical and it does not improve with age. That the repair process, at least in youth, has to be at least double the speed of the wear process is obvious from the fact that most athletes and heavy manual workers survive on eight hours sleep.

From the forgoing, CUCA must be deemed to exist whenever there is an imbalance of nutrients and/or excess stress. It may exist when the stress is mental (provoking the fight or flight reflex') environmental e.g., excess noise, passive smoking, or apply whenever the individual unwisely exercises to the point where his recovery and repair rates cannot in the limited overnight phase, whether asleep or simply resting, effect the necessary renewal and repair of tissues. Any long repeated failure of repair which leaves even the most microscopic amount of residual cellular damage to the arterial endothelium at the end of the rest phase, must by definition be cumulative. Potentiated by ageing, it will result in an inevitable atheroma, CHD and eventual thrombosis unless death intervenes due to other causes. The avoidance of CUCA is therefore the key to a normal blood pressure and cardiovascular system.

In my best professional opinion, scurvy is endemic to the extent of over 90% of the population. Physicians tend to deny this. The excellent paper by Johnston CS published in the J Am. Coll. Nut. (1998 Aug) relies heavily on arbitrarily defined plasma levels which in my opinion are quite unrealistic as deficiency is defined as less than 11.4mumol/L and depletion as plasma concentration in the range 11.5 up to 28.4 mumol/L.

Public confidence in medical attitudes to vitamin C will be further eroded by the announcement of gross errors in the work published four years ago on its half life in the plasma. The same workers have now revised their figures of the half life of the vitamin in the plasma to approximately thirty minutes. (Annals Internal Medicine, April 6, 140: 533-37, 2004) This might explain why so many express disappointment at catching a cold whilst claiming to have taken their vitamin C as recommended once per day. No headlines have been seen in the papers or media following this startling correction. (see

I intended revealing my evidence for the error in this medical thinking in a recently submitted short paper to the British journal entitled "Scurvy - You've got it!". Although backed up by photomicrographs of before and after vessels and a proposed new grading system ten classifications of pericorneal vasculature, it was rejected by the peer review committee because of its slant. My interpretation of this excuse was that the paper was regarded as not conducive to good relations between the two professions of Optometry and Medicine. Furthermore, I was asked not to submit further papers of a similar nature!

The public should readily recognise that Optometry stands for prevention and Western Medicine by contrast, stands for allopathic treatment of symptoms rather than causes. I therefore strongly resist closer links between the professions until Western Medicine is reorganised along preventive lines. The image of Optometry as a caring profession can only suffer by association with allopathic medicine. I have no confidence in a profession that denies the value of ascorbate drops in the treatment of pseudomonas corneal infections when Klenner found it to be specific against pseudomonas overgrowth in burns.

Optometry can only actively truly promote eye care, sight conservation and by association, life extension. Blind people are a worse optometric disaster than an edentulous person to a dental surgeon. Contrast this with Western Medicine - all the wealthier for more widespread and prolonged sickness; a principle that starkly erodes confidence. For how much longer can death and iatrogenic disease on the vast scale of probably a quarter million annual deaths across the West and millions damaged as revealed by Pomeranz BL (JAMA and BMJ) be tolerated, when considering the USA figures extrapolated to include the EEC population?

Digressing for a moment: - In the Chinese system patients pay physicians to keep them well and cease payments during illness. I shall not rest until the worst of all worlds which we have in England and the UK, is reversed. Our wrongly named National Health Service (NHS) extracts large contributions for a Medical or Sickness Service as described by Dr Walter Yellowlees to the Royal College of General Practitioners. ("Ill Fares The Land.") I should like to see physicians earn more, by annual retainer payments as at present but staged to earn most for the very young, least from 20 to 40 then increasing amounts in every decade until old people can feel that they are valued and no longer a challenge and burden to the NHS. which is perceived at present as increasingly their enemy.

Angered by Optician's unexpected rejection of what I felt to be an important paper that had taken a year to prepare, I wrote the British Medical Journal when a colleague, shortly afterwards alerted me to a paper by Wong TY on retinal vasculature and hypertension. To the great credit of the British Medical Journal, my entry directly into the Lions' Den, my definition of scurvy and my feelings regarding the friction engendered between the professions as a result of contrary attitudes to vitamin C in multigram doses, were fully aired in the letter published as an electronic Rapid Response to Wong TY on the 23rd July 2004. This can be read scrolling to Rapid Responses via In that letter I emphasised that scurvy is endemic and pandemic. My exact words in the BMJ were " - - it had become obvious from anterior segment examinations that scurvy, any state in which supplemental vitamin C improves the pericorneal vasculature was leading to reductions of vessel lumen, congestion and hyperaemia in almost every case." and "Microaneurysms and incipient microaneurysms were gradually eliminated as dosages increased. It was judged that over 90% of patients could be improved but some needed over 10,000mgs/day supplemented with vitamin E. According to the received wisdom, the physicians consulted by these patients continued to doubt the necessity for such large doses and a degree of friction existed."

In my conclusion to the BMJ letter I stated, which may be of more interest, "CardioRetinometry has already also demonstrated reductions of cholesterol in the retinal venules and it is believed by the author that cholesterol in the first post capillary venules and veins, deposited against the current received wisdom, is the precursor of arteriosclerosis and essential hypertension."

There can be little doubt from my clinical experience, that CUCA is rooted in scurvy and is the reason why cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death and affects over 50% of people who insist that they expect to get all the nutrition they require from their food!

For too long perhaps, physicians have considered the hypertension of 100+ the age to be normal. At the age of 75, my blood pressure is the same as when I was a 21 year old medical student, before switching into optometry.

To repeat my earlier comment, I am confident that cardioretinometry will prove to be a better surrogate outcome predictor of coronary arterial health than electron beam tomography or angiography with none of the problems of cost, safety and invasiveness. Nutritional prophylactic cardioretinometry should save many lives and improve the lives of many more.

I shall be happy to meet with and/or lecture (within time and distance constraints) any gathering of interested optometrists and possibly ophthalmologists. This group of health professionals is most likely to be (a) suitably equipped (b) interested (c) able to monitor the sequentially illustrative images at sufficiently frequent intervals and (d) supply and record the nutrients in the highly variable amounts thus shown to be necessary for clearance of the cholesterol deposits from the retinal vasculature.

If, as I am fully confident is the case, the small numbers of patients who I have been able to observe are representative, hypertension should be lowered within a very few weeks. The degree should correspond with the success of the procedure as directly visible in the instant images of the retinal vasculature and also, of course, available immediately to the patient in person if interested, without the delays one would normally expect when results have to be obtained from laboratories etc.

Nothing however can be said to have been properly proven about the new sub-speciality within Optometry until a properly designed study has been funded and researched. I am applying for funds at the moment. My ability to be supremely confident of the outcome of a large trial is based on my experience over the last few years, gained it must be admitted, up to now, from somewhat erratic patients and lack of method and consistency difficult to achieve in a contact lens practice. However the dramatic arterial changes that have been seen as never before, encourage one to be very certain indeed that the outcome of any suitable trial will be completely satisfactory and one's faith fully vindicated.

I am confident that we shall have to thank Linus Pauling and cardiologist Dr Matthias Rath MD. for Pauling/Rath theory of course and I am certain that Dr Rath who I look forward to meeting eventually, will have every cause to be quietly satisfied with his achievement.

When in Sweden this summer, I discussed the forgoing with Dr Uffe Ravnskov MD. PhD., author of "The Cholesterol Myths - Exposing The Fallacy That Saturated Fats Cause Heart Disease" and am pleased to say that he was immediately appreciative of the implications for the new procedure and I am hoping that his immense knowledge of the problems of design of similar studies might be forthcoming in order to satisfy the strict criteria that the scientific community will doubtless expect to be met.

Sydney Bush

See also:

Observations On the Dose and Administration of Ascorbic Acid When Employed Beyond the Range Of A Vitamin In Human Pathology
by Frederick R. Klenner

Nutritional Counseling Effectively Treats Cancer Patients

Vitamin C: possible cancer-killing promise
High-dose intravenous vitamin C may be effective in treating cancer, newly published research indicates.


posted by Sepp Hasslberger on Friday July 9 2004
updated on Tuesday December 7 2010

URL of this article:


Related Articles

An Open Challenge To The Ridiculous Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Drs Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts have for a limited time made the their new book: "Ridiculous Dietary Allowance" free (until Jan. 15th 2005) so more people can read it and understand, what travesty the RDA limits are. In the pretense of improving our health these guidelines actually damage it. This book will help educate us all so we can put pressure on the establishment and their Codex deliberations. Which... [read more]
December 15, 2004 - Chris Gupta

..."Millions of people could have delayed or avoided health problems such as cataracts, cancer, blood vessel disease, aneurysms, gall stones and more had NIH researchers properly conducted tests to determine the human need for vitamin C.... ....Despite recently published data that stands in stark contrast to the RDA and the claim that mega-dose vitamin C supplementation is of no benefit, public health authorities are not forthcoming about their past mistakes."...... [read more]
July 09, 2004 - Chris Gupta

As usual the self proclaimed (more like self serving) mainstream authorities are so deathly afraid of vitamin C that they continue to disseminate all sorts of rubbish on it. Not realizing how stupid they look to anyone who even knows a smidgen about this king of vitamins should laugh at their ineptness of the most basic understanding let alone their authority on it. WHAT A JOKE! Sadly this is not... [read more]
September 21, 2004 - Chris Gupta

Vitamin C beats statins in cholesterol - heart disease
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The Negative Impact of Sugar on Vitamin C
Thanks Owen, exactly what I had suspected, one can also add alcohol to Dr. Ely's theory . The hit to the immune system by sugar is an added insult. See: Fibiger's Work on Cancer & Sugar Another good reason, from many, to ditch processed foods... Chris Gupta ----------------------- At 07:22 AM 7/22/2004, wrote: FYI - Dr. John Ely has a Glucose Antagonism Theory - that since both glucose and... [read more]
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Sudden Infant Death - Eliminate With Vitamin C, Not Prison
258 convictions for killing children, with more than 50 parents still in prison, will be reviewed, according to an article in BBC News today. It is likely that many of the cases are not criminal offenses but a tragedy called Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Cot Death, gone unrecognized and turned into human tragedies with courts, prisons and all the trappings of destroyed families and lives. Fortunately there is... [read more]
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Readers' Comments

My brother takes the timed-release vitamin C, which I believe is available at GNC. Would that be a good approach? I know that when I eat the optimal amount of citrus fruits on a regular basis, my asthma subsides. Linus Pauling was certainly a visionary, and I enjoy his Institute's newsletter. This is an area of study and usage with remarkable potential, and we have much more to learn here for the betterment of mankind. My niece plans to study the pharmaceutical field, so I will have to help steer her more toward the area of orthomolecular medicine. Who knows what the next generation will discover?

Posted by: Brent Bielema on July 10, 2004 11:06 PM


Knowledge of Health, Inc.
457 West Allen Avenue #117 San Dimas, Ca. 91773 USA
Phone: 909 596-9507 Fax: 909 596-9189 Email:


With newly published research reports showing that higher concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved in the blood plasma than previously thought possible, antioxidant researchers have penned their names to a plea for a scientific re-evaluation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C.

A dozen prominent antioxidant researchers, authors, and clinicians say the prevalent belief that 200 milligrams of oral vitamin C, an amount that can be obtained by eating five servings of selected fresh fruits and vegetables, can saturate the blood plasma and additional amounts are excreted in the urine, has now been disproved. Two recently published papers indicate that blood plasma levels of ascorbic acid can be raised three times greater than a flawed 1996 study indicates. One of the published studies shows that blood plasma concentrations of vitamin C continue to rise with a single 1000 milligrams dose of supplemental vitamin C.  

Drs. Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts, pharmacology graduates of the University of Manchester in England assert the initial studies used to determine the blood plasma saturation point for vitamin C failed to calculate for the half life of this vitamin. In their newly published book, Drs. Hickey and Roberts show that the original calculations used to establish the RDA were performed 12 hours, or 24 half lives, after oral consumption of vitamin C and are therefore invalid. (Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C, 264 pages, referenced, ebook:

In addition to Drs. Hickey and Roberts, the list of researchers calling for a re-evaluation of the RDA for vitamin C includes: Thomas E. Levy MD, JD, author of Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable (Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation; 2002); Robert F. Cathcart III, MD, a practicing physician and advocate of high oral-dose vitamin C therapy; Richard Passwater PhD, antioxidant researcher and author of Supernutrition; Patrick Holford, London, author of the Optimum Nutrition Bible; Dr Archie Kalokerinos, M.D., Graduate Sydney University, Australia, author of Vitamin C: Nature's Miraculous Healing Missile; Joel M. Kaufman, PhD, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, special interest in medicinal chemistry; Professor Ian Brighthope, Managing Director, Nutrition Care Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, Australia; Hugh D. Riordan, M.D., Director - Bio-Communications Research Institute, Wichita, Kansas; and Abram Hoffer, M.D., PhD., F.R.C.P., a practicing physician, advocate of nutritional medicine and editor of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 

The written plea was sent to the Institutes of Medicine, Food & Nutrition Board, which establishes the Recommended Dietary Allowances for essential nutrients. ####


August 23, 2004

Linda D. Meyers, PhD
Director, Food & Nutrition Board
Institute of Medicine
500 Fifth Street NW
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: 202.334.3153 Fax: 202.334.1412

Catherine Woteki, PhD
Chair, Food & Nutrtion Board
Dean and Director
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Iowa State Univ., College of Agriculture
138 Curtiss Hall
Ames, Iowa 50011
Phone: 515 294-2518  
Fax: 515 294-6800

Paul M. Coates, PhD
Office of Dietary Supplements
National Institutes of Health
Suite 3B01, MSC 7517
6100 Executive Boulevard
Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7517
Fax: 301 480-1845

Senator Thomas Harkin
Attention to: Peter Reinecke,
Chief of staff
731 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510
Phone: (202) 224-3254
Fax: (202) 224-9369


As health professionals who have been involved in vitamin C research, it has recently come to our attention that higher blood plasma concentrations of vitamin C can be achieved through oral intake than previously thought possible. This scientific revelation has ramifications upon the current Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin C and personal health regimens for consumers. It is apparent the current published advice, that the blood plasma concentration for vitamin C is saturated at 200 milligrams oral consumption, must be revised. Furthermore, it is apparent the RDA for vitamin C needs immediate re-evaluation. We urge the scientific community and other responsible health authorities to take timely action to correct misinformation concerning oral dosing of vitamin C and to join an effort to re-evaluate the RDA for vitamin C.


Steve Hickey Ph.D., Metropolitan University of Manchester, England. Co-author, Ascorbate, The Science of Vitamin C,, 2004. ISBN 1-4116-0724-4 Telephone from USA: 011 44 161 962 5495

Hilary Roberts, Ph.D., graduate University of Manchester, England. Co-author, Ascorbate, The Science of Vitamin C,, 2004. ISBN 1-4116-0724-4

Professor Ian Brighthope, Managing Director, Nutrition Care Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, 25 - 27 Keysborough Avenue, Keysborough Victoria 3173 Australia, Phone: +613 9769 0811, Fax: +613 9769 0822

Robert F. Cathcart III, M.D., advocate of high-dose vitamin C therapy; 127 Second Street, Suite 4, Los Altos, California 94022; Telephone: 650-949-2822; FAX: 650-949-5083

Abram Hoffer, M.D., PhD., F.R.C.P. ; Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine; Suite 3 - 2727 Quadra St ; Victoria, British Columbia V8T 4E5 Canada; Telephone: 250-386-8756; Fax 604-386-5828; email:

Patrick Holford, London, founder of the Institute for Optimum Nutrition (ION) and the Brain Bio Centre; author of The Optimum Nutrition Bible, Tel: +44 (0)20 8871 2949 ex 22, Fax: +44 (0)20 8874 5003; Website:

Dr Archie Kalokerinos, M.D., Graduate Sydney University. He is a Life Fellow of the Royal Society for Health, a Fellow of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine, Fellow of the Australasian College of Biomedical Scientists, and a Member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He has authored Vitamin C: Nature's Miraculous Healing Missile (1993). Currently he is semi-retired, living in Tamworth, New South Wales. Address: 20 Kennedy Close, Cooranbong, Australia, NSW 2265; Telephone: 61 2 4977 2957; Email:

Joel M. Kauffman, PhD, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Emeritus Professor of organic chemistry, MIT. Special interest in medicinal chemistry. 65 Meadowbrook Rd. Wayne, PA 19087-2510. Telephone: 215- 596-8839. Email:

Thomas Edward Levy, M.D., J.D., Tulane University School of Medicine, 1972-76-M.D.; Fellowship in Cardiology, 1979-81, Tulane Univ. Affiliated Hospitals; author, Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable, Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris Corporation; 2002. Telephone: 800-331-2303, 719-548-1600; Fax 719 572-8081 or email to

Dr. Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D., antioxidant researcher, author "Supernutrition," Berlin, Maryland. Email: Telephone: 410-641-7411.

Hugh D. Riordan, M.D., President - The Center for the Improvement of Human Functioning Int'l, Inc., Director - Bio-Communications Research Institute, 3100 North Hillside Avenue, Wichita, KS 67219 U.S.A., Phone: 316-682-3100, Fax: 316-682-5054, e-mail:, website:

Andrew W. Saul, PhD, Contributing Editor, Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Number 8 Van Buren Street, Holley, New York 14470 USA. Email:


Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, Riordan HD, Hewitt SM, Katz A, Wesley RA, Levine M., Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use, Annals Internal Medicine, April 6, 140: 533-37, 2004. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Cancer Institut, and the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
Maryland 20892-1372, USA.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C at high concentrations is toxic to cancer cells in vitro. Early clinical studies of vitamin C in patients with terminal cancer suggested clinical benefit, but 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials showed none. However, these studies used different routes of administration.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma vitamin C concentrations vary substantially with the route of administration.
DESIGN: Dose concentration studies and pharmacokinetic modeling.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PARTICIPANTS: 17 healthy hospitalized volunteers. MEASUREMENTS: Vitamin C plasma and urine concentrations were measured after administration of oral and intravenous doses at a dose range of 0.015 to 1.25 g, and plasma concentrations were calculated for a dose range of 1 to 100 g.
RESULTS: Peak plasma vitamin C concentrations were higher after administration of intravenous doses than after administration of oral doses (P smaller than 0.001), and the difference increased according to dose. Vitamin C at a dose of 1.25 g administered orally produced mean (+/-sd) peak plasma concentrations of 134.8 +/- 20.6 micromol/L compared with 885 +/- 201.2 micromol/L for intravenous administration. For the maximum tolerated oral dose of 3 g every 4 hours, pharmacokinetic modeling predicted peak plasma vitamin C concentrations of 220 micromol/L and 13 400 micromol/L for a 50-g intravenous dose. Peak predicted urine concentrations of vitamin C from intravenous administration were 140-fold higher than those from maximum oral doses.
LIMITATIONS: Patient data are not available to confirm pharmacokinetic modeling at high doses and in patients with cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral vitamin C produces plasma concentrations that are tightly controlled. Only intravenous administration of vitamin C produces high plasma and urine concentrations that might have antitumor activity. Because efficacy of vitamin C treatment cannot be judged from clinical trials that use only oral dosing, the role of vitamin C in cancer treatment should be reevaluated.

Polidori MC, Mecocci P, Levine M, Frei B., Short-term and long-term vitamin C supplementation in humans dose-dependently increases the resistance of plasma to ex vivo lipid peroxidation, Archives Biochemistry Biophysics, March 423: 109-15, 2004. Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany.

To assess the effects of short-term and long-term vitamin C supplementation in humans on plasma antioxidant status and resistance to oxidative stress, plasma was obtained from 20 individuals before and 2h after oral administration of 2g of vitamin C, or from eight subjects enrolled in a vitamin C depletion-repletion study using increasing daily doses of vitamin C from 30 to 2500 mg. Plasma concentrations of ascorbate, but not other physiological antioxidants, increased significantly after short-term supplementation, and increased progressively in the long-term study with increasing vitamin C doses of up to 1000 mg/day. Upon incubation of plasma with a free radical initiator, ascorbate concentrations were positively correlated with the lag phase preceding detectable lipid peroxidation. We conclude that vitamin C supplementation in humans dose-dependently increases plasma ascorbate concentrations and, thus, the resistance of plasma to lipid peroxidation ex vivo. Plasma and body saturation with vitamin C in humans appears desirable to maximize antioxidant protection and lower risk of oxidative damage.

Posted by: Sepp on August 25, 2004 05:58 PM


And the press can't really plead ignorance. Here is a letter by Bill Sardi of

Knowledge of Health, Inc.
457 West Allen #117 San Dimas, California 91773 USA
Telephone: 909 596-9507 Facsimile: 909 596-9189 Email:

January 5, 2005

Glen O'Neal, USA TODAY

Hilary Stout, Wall Street Journal

Michael Waldholz, Wall Street Journal

Craig Stoltz, Washington Post

Lawrence Altman, NY Times,

Elisabeth Rosenthal, NY Times

Nicholas Wade, NY Times

Sandy Johnson, Associated Press

Lauran Neegaard, Associated Press

Charlyn Fargo, Copley News Service

Johanna Bennett, Dow Jones News Service

Clark Hoyt, Knight-Ridder Newspapers

John Stickler, Mature Market Editorial Services

Bill Berkrot, Reuters America

Trish Pettway, Reuters Health

Karen Croft,

Michael Woods, Scripps Howard News Service

Allison St. Claire, Senior Wire News Service

Steve Mitchell, UPI

Ken Budd, AARP Magazine

Janet Aker, The Green Sheet,

Geoffrey Cowley, Newsweek

Christine Gorman, Time Magazine

David Bjerklie, Time Magazine

Michael Lemonick, Time Magazine

Josh Fischman, US News & World Report

Bruce Hensel, NBC News,

Roger Sergel, ABC News

Judy Silverman, NBC News

Ann Curley, CNN

Leslie Wade, CNN

Patricia Neighmond, NPR

Reg Fitz, National Enquirer,

Good morning,

I am writing this letter because a scientific discovery of great importance is being overlooked by journalists in the major news media. I'm sure you receive letters like these all the time, begging your attention about some inconsequential disease or cure that has been neglected. This isn't that type of story.

It's about a subject you all have written about vitamin C. There is nary a journalist in the USA that didn't fall for the flawed science offered by the National Institutes of Health in 1992 that high-dose vitamin C (greater than 200 milligrams) is of worthless value. In lock-step, American medical journalists participated in ridiculing vitamin C pill users, saying vitamin C pills produces expensive urine.

Now, as it turns about, NIH scientists failed to calculate for the half life of vitamin C in their studies and it is apparent that three times greater vitamin C blood concentrations can be achieved with oral-dose vitamin C than previously thought possible. 

This fact was reported in the April 2004 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. I won't do all your work for you. The reference is:

Annals Internal Medicine, Volume 140, No. 7, April 6, pages 533-37, 2004.

Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use. Padayatty SJ, Sun H, Wang Y, Riordan HD, Hewitt SM, Katz A, Wesley RA, Levine M.

So what, you say? With 18 percent of the American public consuming less than 30 milligrams of vitamin C per day, and high mortality rates linked with low vitamin C consumption, it is apparent that the mortality rates for coronary heart disease, the nation's number one killer, can be significantly reduced with simply vitamin C therapy. Millions are dying needlessly and have died over the past decade, due to the flawed information disseminated by the NIH. 

Just recently a meta-analysis showed that consumption of 700 milligrams of oral vitamin C would reduce the mortality rate for coronary heart disease by 25 percent, an amount only obtainable from dietary supplements, not foods. [Reference: American Journal Clinical Nutrition, Volume 80, No. 6, pages 1508-20, December 2004. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, O'Reilly EJ, Augustsson K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Heitmann BL, Hallmans G, Liu S, Pietinen P, Spiegelman D, Stevens J, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Ascherio A]

Also reported in the Annals of Internal Medicine study was the fact that intravenous vitamin C can achieve blood concentrations 160-times greater than oral doses and that IV ascorbic acid therapy needs to be revisited for cancer therapy. Translation: Linus Pauling's pioneer work may be vindicated after all.

Drs. Steve Hickey and Hilary Roberts, pharmacology graduates from Manchester University in England, have revealed in their new book THE RIDICULOUS DAILY ALLOWANCE, how these misconceptions about vitamin C emanated. Their book is available for a free download at

Drs. Hickey and Roberts have challenged scientists worldwide. They write: 

"We can find no reputable scientist or clinician to defend the low dose hypothesis for vitamin C. The low dose hypothesis is the idea that milligram level intakes of ascorbate, of the magnitude of the RDA, are adequate for health. In particular, we have demonstrated conclusively that the "landmark" papers from Mark Levine's NIH ascorbate pharmacokinetics group are flawed (Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C by Dr Steve Hickey and Dr Hilary Roberts). We have challenged the NIH, the US Institute of Medicine and every associated scientist I could easily locate who published on ascorbate saturation. None of these people have been able to provide a defense of the low dose hypothesis.

The current RDA for vitamin C has no scientific foundation whatsoever. This statement is fully justified in the book "Ridiculous Daily Allowance, by Dr Steve Hickey and Dr Hilary Roberts", download FREE from HYPERLINK This is an open scientific challenge. We claim that the low dose hypothesis for vitamin C is intellectually bankrupt and devoid of any basis in science. Linus Pauling's claims for megadose supplementation were correct.

Do ANY of the scientists associated with SACN have a scientific response to our challenge? If not, will you please admit that the current recommendations are in error? If you cannot make a defense of this low dose nonsense, I demand that you immediately take steps to revise the RDA for vitamin C and all other nutrients as a matter of urgency."

All of the above information has been widely available to you. Some of it has been sent to your email box, or to you by US mail. Why is it being ignored?

Don't reach for that telephone to call your most trusted medical authority on this issue he or she has also been misled by the NIH. Why anybody who suggests taking vitamin C pills is a health quack, or so says Quackwatch.  You can always confuse the public by obtaining a contrary opinion from an uninformed source who quotes outdated or flawed studies.

What is wrong with American health journalism? Are you all so jaded or intimidated by the NIH that you can't think for yourselves? You all have biology or pharmacology degrees. You all know how to read a scientific paper. 

noted antioxidant researchers appealed to the Food & Nutrition Board this past summer, to review the RDA for vitamin C.  A press release was widely distributed to the news media. Not one major news outlet covered the story. Why?

When the NIH announced that high-dose oral vitamin C was excreted in the urine in 1992, nary a physician, pharmacologist or health reporter ventured to question that report. The NIH study was patently false since animals produce their own vitamin C and achieve blood concentrations much higher than humans, who have lost their ability to synthesize vitamin C in the liver due to a genetic mutation.  

It is of interest to note that guinea pigs, that are in the same predicament as humans and can't synthesize their own ascorbic acid and must rely totally on their diet for this essential vitamin, must be supplemented with vitamin C in their chow or they will develop coronary heart disease. Every veterinarian knows this. You can't purchase food for guinea pigs (cavvies) without it being fortified with vitamin C, about 5 mg per day, equivalent to about 800 milligrams in humans. The guinea pigs are provided more vitamin C than humans!   

This letter isn't about trivial or innocuous health problems. It is about Americans dying needlessly and prematurely, by the minute, due to a shortage of vitamin C. 

Will American medical journalists report to the public on this issue in a timely way? Will American physicians begin prescribing a daily 1000-milligram pill of vitamin C to all their adult patients? After a decade of falling for the propaganda from the NIH, one begins to wonder if you all want to embarrass yourselves by admitting the science was wrong and the reporting flawed also.

Shall American medical journalism now become a tool of government propaganda and the public left to sort out health issues from other sources? If so, the ongoing slide of credibility in American journalism will accelerate. Soon, no one will read your columns. No one likes to prod journalists into covering a story.  But it has come down to this.

Are you personally going to ignore the fact that vitamin C pills will reduce your risk, and the risk of your loved ones, from developing coronary heart disease, better than any other single pill that modern medicine has to offer? Statin drugs only lower mortality rates from coronary heart disease by 0.4% says the largest study conducted so far. [Reference: Journal American Medical Assn, Volume 288, pages 2998-307, 2002] It would be interesting to know, following exposure to the above information, whether medical journalists will alter their own personal health regimens to include supplemental vitamin C? The public follows your lead, your words, your advice. This letter is being aired online to millions of others. How much longer before you pull your heads out of the sand?


Bill Sardi, President
Knowledge of Health, Inc.
San Dimas, California. for more information about vitamin C

Dr. Steve Hickey can be reached via email at
radicalascorbate [at]

Posted by: Sepp on January 23, 2005 01:32 PM


A friend who lives in Sweden sent an article about vitamin C and the common cold - another study that proves vitamin C is not effective. This is a point often made by detractors of vitamin C use, to "prove" that vitamin C is ineffective.

Apart from the ridiculous quantity used (200 mg and up) as vitamin C supplementation, there is another point to be made about the cold, which I make in my reply to Adi in Sweden...

- - - - - - -

Date: Tue, 28 Jun 2005 10:14:52 +0200
To: "Adi"
From: Sepp Hasslberger
Subject: Re: Vitamin C and the common cold

Dear Adi,

thank you for the article on vitamin C and the Common Cold.

the researchers are missing one basic datum: The common cold is not an illness but a cleaning process. It eliminates accumulated toxins from the body, much like we do when performing a "spring cleaning" ritual on our house.

Vitamin C does the same, but in a different (more slow) way. So it makes sense that some people taking vitamin C should have a reduced incidence of the cold, and it becomes understandable that vitamin C supplementation does little to reduce or eliminate a cold once it has started.

We are looking at two curative mechanisms, the first one is vitamin C promoting elimination by way of renal and intestinal excretion, the second one is the the cold virus, promoting elimination in a more radical way, through mucous membranes.

See also another recent article on the subject of an adeno-associated (cold-associated) virus (AAV2) actually killing cancer cells and thus protecting health, which you forwarded some days ago.

The upshot is that perhaps vira (virusses) are not that bad after all, they may have a function in health, and we should probably find out what that function is before we go all out killing them off.

Kind regards

Reported June 28, 2005

Vitamin C and the Common Cold

(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- When the book, "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" was released in 1970, many people came to believe vitamin C was important in preventing and treating the common cold. Since that time, we've all heard varying research debating whether vitamin C helps to prevent the common cold or not.

Recently, researchers in Australia and Finland reviewed the best quality studies of vitamin C and common cold conducted over the last 65 years. All of these studies compared a daily dose of 200 milligrams of vitamin C or more against a placebo. The researchers hoped to discover whether vitamin C reduced the incidence, duration or severity of the common cold, and whether it helped to reduce cold symptoms.

After reviewing 23 studies, the researchers found vitamin C did not reduce the risk of contracting the common cold. However, those people who were given vitamin C and then caught a cold experienced a small reduction in the duration of the cold compared with those taking a placebo. The authors say the clinical significance of this minor reduction is questionable.

The authors did find evidence vitamin C could help prevent colds in people exposed to extreme physical exertion or cold weather. Marathon runners, skiers and soldiers taking vitamin C in six different studies experienced a 50-percent reduction in common cold incidence.

No benefit was found for taking vitamin C as a possible treatment for an established cold. However, in one of the seven trials looking at the vitamin as a treatment, patients who took a single very high dose of the vitamin on the day symptoms began experienced a shorter illness compared with those who took a placebo.
This article was reported by

Posted by: Sepp on June 28, 2005 05:10 PM


One Glaring Omission from all of the above information is the type of Vit C compound used in the study. Without this informantion it is impossible to duplicate the results in a clinical setting, or to resolve the immense semantics problem this Topic always seems to have. The bioavailable form and what mineral it is bound to can make all the in vivo difference. No mention of Bioflavinoids either... Disappointing at best, and in sharp contrast to the professionally written article "Natural Biomolecules: Avoid Inherent Pharmaceutical Drug Toxicity" where I found the link. I for one am really tired of all the Marketing Zoom and no facts.

Posted by: Terry L. Smith on March 11, 2006 10:40 PM



the vitamin C normally used in these studies is the 'naked' ascorbic acid.

Certainly if using C together with its natural co-factors which include bioflavonoids and minerals, you might expect even better results...

If you read the book or even the summary provided here, you'll see that it is not about marketing but about the flawed science that was used to determine the RDA for vitamin C.

Posted by: Sepp on March 12, 2006 01:00 PM


Another comment from Terry (by email) and my answer:

Whatever "naked" ascorbic acid is, it's certainly no chemical term I am familiar with. There is Sodium Ascorbate, Calcium Ascorbate, etc. There are time-released pills, powders, and specialized items available to dentists who do mercury detox chelation and MDs who use Vit C compounds for arterial chelation. Believe me, it matters. Science demands it. EDTA chelation can kill if using the wrong forms. All ascorbate is not alike, and thus why the studies conflict all the time. I believe Vit C is highly important, but your information is a Rant, not information anyone can use to cure or help themselves.


ever heard of L-ascorbic acid that is not combined with any minerals - the pure ascorbate?

Have you tried getting the actual book that describes the study results and reading it?

I know very well that all ascorbate is not alike, and I have written on that in other articles.

But the article you refer to is not promoting ascorbate or specific dosages of it as a cure. Its main point is a challenge of the findings that are at the basis of the RDA for vitamin C. The authors' point is that the half-life of vitamin C in the body is about 30 minutes and that this has not been taken into account in setting the RDA.

What Hickey and Roberts found was that the original research that determined we need only 60 mg of vitamin C a day is based on the flawed premise that higher doses make no difference because they are eliminated. But by giving the vitamin C in divided doses several times a day, the researchers showed that we can very well absorb more vitamin C than 60 mg, but we need to continuously supply it, not only once a day.

That is true irrespective of the form of vitamin C used.

And by the way, what does EDTA have to do with vitamin C?


Posted by: Sepp on March 13, 2006 11:48 AM


I found this to be extremely interesting. I am unable to print it out because for some reason my printer is cutting off the words on the right side of the page. I am doing a report for school. Do you have anymore findings on Vitamin C ?

Posted by: Paula Firestone on April 1, 2006 08:03 PM



just go to the top of the page and type vitamin c into the little google search window.

There are plenty of other articles around - probably more than you can use.

Posted by: Sepp on April 1, 2006 10:06 PM


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